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UMR7194 - Publications dans des revues indexées (2014)

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  • Amato, Vincenzo, Aucelli, Pietro P. C., Cesarano, Massimo, Jicha, Brian, Lebreton, Vincent, Orain, Ronan, Pappone, Gerardo, Petrosino, Paola, et Russo Ermolli, Elda.0 « Quaternary Evolution Of The Largest Intermontane Basin Of The Molise Apennine (Central-Southern Italy) ». Rendiconti Lincei 25(S2): 197-216.
    Résumé : An integrated morpho-stratigraphic approach has been used to reconstruct the Quaternary history of the Boiano basin, the largest tectonic depression of the Molise Apennine (Italy). Lacustrine, marshy and fluvial environments alternate all along the investigated infilling succession as a response to tectonic subsidence, volcaniclastic inputs and climate changes, from ca. 500 ka. Two tephra layers 40Ar/39Ar have been dated and referred to the Middle Pleistocene explosive activity of the Roccamonfina volcano, while a younger tephra layer has been related to the Campi Flegrei Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (ca. 15 ka). Pollen analysis has highlighted the vegetation changes related to the 100 ka glacial–interglacial cyclicity, between MIS 13 and 2. From 500 to 350 ka, a strong subsidence led to lacustrine deposition, while between 350 and 250 ka, a decrease in subsidence rates caused the transition to fluvial–marshy conditions and, at a later stage, to floodplain environments. The analysis of palaeosurfaces allowed the geomorphological evolution of the basin to be reconstructed since the Middle Pleistocene and the morpho-sedimentary events to be related to the SW-NE extensional tectonics affecting this sector of the central-southern Apennine. This tectonic behavior is also testified by the differential subsidence rates recorded within the basin through the analysis of two deep cores drilled in the center of the Boiano town.

  • Antoine, P., Moncel, M.-H., Locht, J.-L., Limondin-Lozouet, N., Auguste, P., Stoetzel, E., Dabkowski, J., Voinchet, P., Bahain, J.-J., et Falgueres, C.0 « Dating The Earliest Human Occupation Of Western Europe: New Evidence From The Fluvial Terrace System Of The Somme Basin (Northern France) ». Quaternary International.

  • Anvari, Zohreh, Berillon, Gilles, Asgari Khaneghah, Asghar, Grimaud-Herve, Dominique, Moulin, Valérie, et Nicolas, Guillaume.0 « Kinematics And Spatiotemporal Parameters Of Infant-Carrying In Olive Baboons ». American journal of physical anthropology 155(3): 392–404.

  • Arzarello, Marta, Peretto, Carlo, et Moncel, Marie-Hélène.0 « The Pirro Nord Site (Apricena, Fg, Southern Italy) In The Context Of The First European Peopling: Convergences And Divergences ». Quaternary International.

  • Assefa, Zelalem, Pleurdeau, David, Duquesnoy, Frederique, Hovers, Erella, Pearson, Osbjorn, Asrat, Asfawossen, T/Tsion, Constantinos, et Lam, Yin Man.0 « Survey And Explorations Of Caves In Southeastern Ethiopia: Middle Stone Age And Later Stone Age Archaeology And Holocene Rock Art ». Quaternary International 343: 136–147.
    Résumé : The horn of Africa provides the setting for the evolution of early modern humans and their dispersal out of Africa as well as for the entry, many thousands of years later, of pastoralists who brought Near Eastern and, later, South Asian livestock into Africa. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the late Upper Pleistocene archaeological record of the horn of Africa, mainly due to the paucity of well-stratified sites from the period. The discovery in southeastern Ethiopia of a number of caves with rich Upper Pleistocene and Holocene archaeological deposits, many of which also had rock art depicting domestic animals, offers an unprecedented opportunity for exploring the later prehistory of the region. In 2007, 2008 our survey documented twenty-one cave sites and shelters with evidence of cultural deposits, including Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) stone artifacts, faunal remains, and rock art. Active and fossil speleothems, important for paleoclimatic reconstructions and chronology, were found from two other caves in eastern and western Harerghe. Test excavations were conducted at three sites, with abundant archaeological material documented from stratified deposits at two of these sites – Gilbo Tate and Goda Buticha. The latter is a subject of another paper in this volume. Rock art was recorded at eighteen sites, three of which (in western Harerghe) had not previously been documented. At many of the sites, much of the art is faded and in a vulnerable state, and continued efforts to document and conserve this art are urgently needed.

  • Baena, Javier, Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Cuartero, Felipe, Navarro, M. Gema Chacón, et Rubio, Daniel.0 « Late Middle Pleistocene Genesis Of Neanderthal Technology In Western Europe: The Case Of Payre Site (South-East France) ». Quaternary International.

  • Balzeau, Antoine, Gilissen, Emmanuel, Holloway, Ralph L., Prima, Sylvain, et Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique.0 « Variations In Size, Shape And Asymmetries Of The Third Frontal Convolution In Hominids: Paleoneurological Implications For Hominin Evolution And The Origin Of Language ». Journal of human evolution 76: 116–128.

  • Beck, L., Rousselière, H., Castaing, J., Duran, A., Lebon, M., Moignard, B., et Plassard, F.0 « First Use Of Portable System Coupling X-Ray Diffraction And X-Ray Fluorescence For In-Situ Analysis Of Prehistoric Rock Art ». Talanta 129: 459–464.

  • Been, Ella, Gómez-Olivencia, Asier, et Kramer, Patricia A.0 « Brief Communication: Lumbar Lordosis In Extinct Hominins: Implications Of The Pelvic Incidence ». American Journal of Physical Anthropology 154(2): 307-314.
    Résumé : Recently, interest has peaked regarding the posture of extinct hominins. Here, we present a new method of reconstructing lordosis angles of extinct hominin specimens based on pelvic morphology, more specifically the orientation of the sacrum in relation to the acetabulum (pelvic incidence). Two regression models based on the correlation between pelvic incidence and lordosis angle in living hominoids have been developed. The mean values of the calculated lordosis angles based on these models are 36°−45° for australopithecines, 45°−47° for Homo erectus, 27°−34° for the Neandertals and the Sima de los Huesos hominins, and 49°−51° for fossil H. sapiens. The newly calculated lordosis values are consistent with previously published values of extinct hominins (Been et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 147 (2012) 64–77). If the mean values of the present nonhuman hominoids are representative of the pelvic and lumbar morphology of the last common ancestor between humans and nonhuman hominoids, then both pelvic incidence and lordosis angle dramatically increased during hominin evolution from 27° ± 5 to 22° ± 3 (respectively) in nonhuman hominoids to 54° ± 10 and 51° ± 11 in modern humans. This change to a more human-like configuration appeared early in the hominin evolution as the pelvis and spines of both australopithecines and H. erectus show a higher pelvic incidence and lordosis angle than nonhuman hominoids. The Sima de los Huesos hominins and Neandertals show a derived configuration with a low pelvic incidence and lordosis angle. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:307–314, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Mots-clés : Australopithecus sediba, H. erectus, Neandertal, posture, spine.

  • Borel, Antony, Ollé, Andreu, Vergès, Josep Maria, et Sala, Robert.0 « Scanning Electron And Optical Light Microscopy: Two Complementary Approaches For The Understanding And Interpretation Of Usewear And Residues On Stone Tools ». Journal of Archaeological Science 48: 46–59.

  • Brasseur, Boris, Sémah, François, Sémah, Anne-Marie, et Djubiantono, Tony.0 « Pedo-Sedimentary Dynamics Of The Sangiran Dome Hominid Bearing Layers (Early To Middle Pleistocene, Central Java, Indonesia): A Palaeopedological Approach For Reconstructing ‘Pithecanthropus’(Javanese< I> Homo Erectus</i>) Palaeoenvironment ». Quaternary International.

  • Cauche, Dominique, Khatib, Samir, Desclaux, Emmanuel, et Combaud, Laurent.0 « Découverte D’Une Industrie Du Paléolithique Inférieur En Bordure De La Commune De Nice, Au Vallon Obscur À Saint-Isidore ». L'Anthropologie 118(4): 437–448.

  • Charlier, Philippe, Froesch, Philippe, Balzeau, Antoine, et Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle.0 « 3-Dimensional Brain Surface Reconstruction From Dried Skull: Interest For Retrospective Diagnosis In Forensic Anthropology. ». The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology 35(4): 283–284.

  • Corny, Julien, et Détroit, Florent.0 « Technical Note: Anatomic Identification Of Isolated Modern Human Molars: Testing Procrustes Aligned Outlines As A Standardization Procedure For Elliptic Fourier Analysis ». American Journal of Physical Anthropology 153(2): 314-322.
    Résumé : The determination of the precise position of permanent first and second modern human molars, following standard tooth identification criteria, is often difficult because of their morphological similarities. Here, we proposed to evaluate the suitability of two-dimensional crown contour shape analysis in achieving this objective. The method was tested separately on 180 first and second maxillary molars (UM) and 180 first and second mandibular molars (LM) securely identified (in anatomical position in their sockets). Generalized Procrustes superimposition is used to normalize the outlines prior to applying elliptic Fourier analyses (“EFAproc” method). Reliability and effectiveness of this morphometric procedure was evaluated by comparing the results obtained for the same dataset with four other morphometric methods of contour analysis. Cross-validated (“leave one individual out”) percentages of misclassification yielded by linear discriminant analyses were used for determining the anatomic position of modern human molars. The percentages of misclassifications obtained from every method of contour analysis were low (1.67% to 3.33% for the UM, 5.56% to 6.67% for the LM) indicating the high suitability of crown contour analyses in correctly identifying molars. A reliable protocol, based on predictive linear discriminant analyses, was then proposed for identification of isolated molars. In addition, our results confirmed that the EFAproc method is suitable for normalizing outlines prior to undertaking elliptic Fourier analyses, especially in the case of nearly circular outlines: it obtained better classification than the classic method of normalization of Fourier descriptors for UM and provided also some advantages over the three landmarks-based methods tested here. Am J Phys Anthropol 153:314–322, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Mots-clés : contour shape analysis, geometric morphometrics, normalization, tooth recognition.

  • Crépin, Laurent, Péan, Stéphane, et Lázničková-Galetová, Martina.0 « Comportements De Subsistance Au Paléolithique Supérieur En Crimée: Analyse Archéozoologique Des Couches 6-2, 6-1 Et 5-2 De Buran-Kaya Iii ». L'Anthropologie 118(5): 584–598.

  • Daujeard, Camille, Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Fiore, Ivana, Tagliacozzo, Antonio, Bindon, Peter, et Raynal, Jean-Paul.0 « Middle Paleolithic Bone Retouchers In Southeastern France: Variability And Functionality ». Quaternary International 326–327: 492-518.
    Résumé : Diversity in the used bone found in the European Middle Paleolithic is very low, but bone retouchers are the most abundant and the most common. This paper focuses on the detailed study of numerous bone retouchers found in nine Middle Paleolithic sites bordering the French Massif Central in Southeastern France. Multidisciplinary and recent data on chronology and biostratigraphy on the archaeological sequences and the great number of bone retouchers have permitted a meaningful comparative regional analysis. Their occurrences and characteristics allow us to speculate about the skills and choices of the knappers using these bone tools, for instance deliberate selection or opportunistic choices within the butchery remains, as well as commenting on the length of time and the way that sites were occupied. Furthermore, in most of the studied layers we observed a strong disparity between the abundance of bone retouchers and the number of retouched lithic products presents, raising questions about their function and their role within the stone tool reduction sequence (primary retouching, resharpening stone tool cutting-edges, producing marginal and micro-retouch or in some cases semi-Quina retouch). Results are compared with a large European database, allowing us to discuss the characteristics of the bone retouchers in the Neanderthal world.

  • Daver, G., Détroit, Florent, Grimaud-Hervé, D., Berillon, G., et Prat, S.0 « Fossil Hominins, Quadrupedal Primates And The Origin Of Human Bipedalism: A 3D Geometric Morphometric Analysis Of The Primate Hamate ». BMSAP: 1-8.
    Résumé : This note illustrates the value of studying nonhuman primates, especially quadrupedal primates, in order to investigate the origins of human bipedalism. Two distinct hypotheses postulate that hominins and African great apes share a common ancestor predominantly engaged in specialized forms of locomotion, i.e., arboreal orthogrady (climbing or arboreal bipedalism) on the one hand and semiterrestrial locomotion (which includes climbing and quadrupedalism) on the other. Both hypotheses are supported by analysis of the wrist morphology of Pliocene hominins, and both have recently been challenged by a third hypothesis based on the study of Ardipithecus ramidus wrist morphology, which has shown general affinities between the latter hominin and quadrupedal primates. However, all three interpretations rely on rather limited knowledge of the variability of wrist bones in quadrupedal primates. Here, we propose to address the question of the origins of human bipedalism by means of a threedimensional analysis of a carpal bone, the hamate, whose morphology appears to vary according to the locomotor behaviour of primates. We compared the original specimens of Pliocene hominins (Australopithecus) with a large sample of non-human primates, including various quadrupedal anthropoids. Our results confirm that, on the one hand, the shape of the hamate in primates varies significantly according to their locomotor behaviour and, on the other hand, that the hypothesis of the semiterrestrial origin of human bipedalism can be rejected. The affinities between Pliocene hominins and most of extant quadrupedal primates indicate that the hands of early hominins partly retained a morphology inherited from a generalist quadrupedal ancestor, which concurs with the hypothesis recently proposed from the hand bones of Ar. ramidus.
    Mots-clés : 3D geometric morphometrics, Évolution, bipédie, Bipedalism, Carpals, Carpiens, Demography, Evolution, Evolutionary Biology, Human genetics, Morphométrie géométrique 3D, Quadrupédie, Quadrupedalism.

  • Drucker, Dorothée G., Bocherens, Hervé, et Péan, Stéphane.0 « Isotopes Stables (13 C, 15 N) Du Collagène Des Mammouths De Mezhyrich (Epigravettien, Ukraine): Implications Paléoécologiques ». L'Anthropologie 118(5): 504–517.

  • El Albani, Abderrazak, Bengtson, Stefan, Canfield, Donald E., Riboulleau, Armelle, Rollion Bard, Claire, Macchiarelli, Roberto, Ngombi Pemba, Lauriss, Hammarlund, Emma, Meunier, Alain, Moubiya Mouele, Idalina, Benzerara, Karim, Bernard, Sylvain, Boulvais, Philippe, Chaussidon, Marc, Cesari, Christian, Fontaine, Claude, Chi-Fru, Ernest, Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel, Gauthier-Lafaye, François, Mazurier, Arnaud, Pierson-Wickmann, Anne Catherine, Rouxel, Olivier, Trentesaux, Alain, Vecoli, Marco, Versteegh, Gerard J. M., White, Lee, Whitehouse, Martin, et Bekker, Andrey.0 « The 2.1 Ga Old Francevillian Biota: Biogenicity, Taphonomy And Biodiversity ». PLoS ONE 9(6): e99438.
    Résumé : The Paleoproterozoic Era witnessed crucial steps in the evolution of Earth's surface environments following the first appreciable rise of free atmospheric oxygen concentrations ∼2.3 to 2.1 Ga ago, and concomitant shallow ocean oxygenation. While most sedimentary successions deposited during this time interval have experienced thermal overprinting from burial diagenesis and metamorphism, the ca. 2.1 Ga black shales of the Francevillian B Formation (FB2) cropping out in southeastern Gabon have not. The Francevillian Formation contains centimeter-sized structures interpreted as organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms living in an oxygenated marine ecosystem. Here, new material from the FB2 black shales is presented and analyzed to further explore its biogenicity and taphonomy. Our extended record comprises variably sized, shaped, and structured pyritized macrofossils of lobate, elongated, and rod-shaped morphologies as well as abundant non-pyritized disk-shaped macrofossils and organic-walled acritarchs. Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis. The emergence of this biota follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, which is consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life.

  • El Amrani El Hassani, Iz-Eddine, Nespoulet, Roland, Debenath, André, Morala, André, et El Hajraoui, Mohamed Abdeljalil.0 « Découverte De Témoins D’Occupations Préhistoriques En Grottes Dans La Coulée Basaltique Plio-Quaternaire De La Région D’Oulmès (Maroc Central) ». Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat, section Sciences de la Terre 35.

  • Forestier, Hubert, Sophady, Heng, Puaud, Simon, Mourer, Roland, Billault, Laurence, Philippe, Marc, et Zeitoun, Valéry.0 « New Evidence Of Old Stone Tools From The Mekong Terraces, Cambodia ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 13(2): 109-120.
    Résumé : The study of prehistoric sites with lithic remains indicates that the occupation of continental Asia, notably India and China, seems to have taken place earlier than previously thought. However, this Early Pleistocene human dispersal out of Africa remains debatable for the Southeast of Asia, in spite of the discovery of original lithic assemblages on the Mekong terraces dated to the very beginning of the Middle Pleistocene in the centre of Cambodia, by Saurin and Carbonnel in the 1960–1970s. Although this fundamental lithic material has become a reference, it has not been subjected to renewed study of these artefacts over the past decades, and it is thus not possible, for the moment, to attribute it with certainty to a particular culture. In this paper, we present an analysis of the raw materials and a techno-typological study of a similar series of prehistoric tools gathered by one of us in order to bring to light new elements concerning the first Palaeolithic occupation of this region of the world. D’après l’étude des sites préhistoriques qui ont livré des outils lithiques, le peuplement de l’Asie semble être plus ancien que ce qui était précédemment admis, du moins en Inde ou en Chine. Ce peuplement ancien reste, cependant, une question en suspens pour le Sud-est asiatique continental, alors que des hommes fossiles et outils lithiques anciens sont présents en Indonésie à une période très reculée. La découverte d’assemblages lithiques originaux par Saurin et Carbonnel dans les années 1960–1970 sur les terrasses du Mékong au centre du Cambodge, datées du début du Pléistocène, a servi de point de référence sans que ce matériel lithique ne soit réétudié depuis. En l’absence d’étude complète de ce matériel, il n’est pas permis de conclure définitivement sur sa nature ou son faciès culturel. Nous présentons ici une analyse des matières premières et une étude techno-fonctionnelle d’une série d’outils préhistoriques, trouvée par l’un d’entre nous (R.M.) dans le même contexte que celui décrit par Saurin, afin d’apporter de nouveaux éléments de réflexion quant aux premiers peuplements de cette région du monde.
    Mots-clés : Ancient Palaeolithic, Asie du Sud-Est, Cobble tools, Galets, Paléolithique ancien, Préhistoire, Prehistory, Southeast Asia.

  • Gómez-Olivencia, Asier, Arceredillo, Diego, Álvarez-Lao, Diego J., Garate, Diego, San Pedro, Ziortza, Castaños, Pedro, et Rios-Garaizar, Joseba.0 « New Evidence For The Presence Of Reindeer (Rangifer Tarandus) On The Iberian Peninsula In The Pleistocene: An Archaeopalaeontological And Chronological Reassessment ». Boreas 43(2): 286-308.
    Résumé : Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) populations reached the Iberian Peninsula during the end of the Middle Pleistocene and there are numerous examples of this species from Late Pleistocene Mousterian and Upper Palaeolithic sites. In this paper, new evidence of reindeer in the east Cantabrian region is presented that further supports the timing of this species’ first appearance, and previous assessments are updated. To date, the presence of this species has been identified at 55 sites in the Iberian Peninsula, nearly as many as those of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) combined. Most of the sites with presence of reindeer (50) are located in the Cantabrian region with a clear increase in the density of sites and remains towards the Pyrenees. The remaining five sites with evidence of reindeer are located on the other side of the Pyrenees in the NW corner of Catalonia. In contrast, archaeological evidence of reindeer in the form of art (both parietal and portable) is more scarce and scattered. Evidence for the representation of these animals has been found outside the northern fringe of the Iberian Peninsula, which could reflect either long-distance cultural communication or the movement of human groups.

  • Heuzé, Yann, et Balzeau, Antoine.0 « Asymmetry Of The Midfacial Skeleton Of Eastern Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla Beringei Graueri) And Potential Association With Frontal Lobe Asymmetries ». Journal of human evolution 74: 123–129.

  • Ingicco, T., Amano, N., Ochoa, Janine, et Détroit, F.0 « An Allometric Study Of Macaca Fascicularis From The Late Pleistocene Deposits At The Ille Site (Philippines): A Possible Model For Southeast Asian Dwarf Hominins ». BMSAP 26(3-4): 147–153.
    Résumé : Recent discoveries of taxonomically challenging Southeast Asian dwarf hominins from Liang Bua in Indonesia and the Callao Cave in the Philippines have enabled us to investigate the general tendency towards dwarfism or gigantism already observed in endemic insular animals. One current hypothesis suggests that the pygmy human phenotype is the result of evolutionary selection in rainforest environments. In this paper we test the hypothesis that dwarfism is a response to forest habitats, using macaque (Macaca fascicularis) fossils from the well-stratified archaeological sequence at the Ille site in the Philippines. Our results show that changes in size may affect general conformations in forested environments, and therefore support the hypothesis put forward on the evolution of pygmy hominin populations in tropical rainforest habitats.
    Mots-clés : Asie du Sud-Est insulaire, Évolution humaine, Demography, Elliptic Fourier, Evolutionary Biology, Forêt tropicale humide, Fourier elliptique, Hominin evolution, Human genetics, Insular and Environmental dwarfism, Nanisme insulaire et environnemental, Non-human primates, Primates non-humains, Rainforest, Southeast Asian insularity.

  • Ingicco, Thomas, de Vos, John, et Huffman, O. Frank.0 « The Oldest Gibbon Fossil (Hylobatidae) From Insular Southeast Asia: Evidence From Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/middle Pleistocene ». PLoS ONE 9(6): e99531.
    Résumé : A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891–1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here.

  • Jarman, David, Calvet, Marc, Corominas, Jordi, Delmas, Magali, et Gunnell, Yanni.0 « Large-Scale Rock Slope Failures In The Eastern Pyrenees: Identifying A Sparse But Significant Population In Paraglacial And Parafluvial Contexts ». Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography 96(3): 357–391.

  • Lambert, A., Puymerail, L., Chaumoitre, K., et Schmitt, A.0 « Analyse Fonctionnelle Des Adaptations Osseuses Du Squelette Post Crânien Au Néolithique Final En Provence ». BMSAP 26(1-2): 67-77.
    Résumé : Afin de définir les caractéristiques biomécaniques de la population issue de l’hypogée des Boileau, un ensemble funéraire collectif du Néolithique final vauclusien, nos travaux se sont orientés vers la géométrie de section. Cet outil permet d’estimer la capacité de l’os à résister à des contraintes mécaniques en mesurant les propriétés géométriques des sections transverses diaphysaires. Il permet ainsi d’esquisser les modalités d’exécution des activités des populations passées; les modèles d’activités. Les paramètres des sections humérales et fémorales ont été calculés pour 61 individus (40 femmes et 21 hommes) par tomographie médicale. Aucun dimorphisme sexuel biomécanique lié à l’asymétrie bilatérale ou aux dimensions des membres n’a été mis en évidence pour l’humérus suggérant une pratique préférentielle d’activités bilatérales et des modalités d’exécution des activités semblables entre les sexes. En revanche, la robustesse fémorale masculine indique une pratique d’activités physiques plus intenses que celle des femmes, laissant envisager une éventuelle division sexuelle des tâches impliquant le membre inférieur. Les types de mouvements du fémur semblent être équivalents entre les sexes.
    Mots-clés : Biomécanique, Biomechanics, computed tomography, Cross-sectional geometric properties, Demography, Evolutionary Biology, Fémur, Femur, Human genetics, Humérus, Humerus, Late Neolithic, Néolithique Final, Propriétés géométriques de section, Provence, Tomographie médicale.

  • Lázničková-Galetová, Martina.0 « The Phenomenon Of Gravettian Necklaces–Mammoth Ivory Necklaces From Dolní Věstonice I (Moravia, Czech Republic) ». Quaternary International 359: 229–239.

  • Le Bourdonnec, F.-X., D’Anna, A., Poupeau, G., Lugliè, C., Bellot-Gurlet, L., Tramoni, P., et Marchesi, H.0 « Obsidians Artefacts From Renaghju (Corsica Island) And The Early Neolithic Circulation Of Obsidian In The Western Mediterranean ». Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences: 1-22.
    Résumé : The site of Renaghju has the largest excavated area of any Neolithic site on the island of Corsica (Western Mediterranean). Its lowest layer, exposed over a few hundred meters square contained a rich Early Neolithic Cardial ceramic and lithic industry dated by 14C to the second half of the 6th millennium BC. Obsidian, a raw material exogenous to the island, comprises ca. 15 % of the chipped stone industry. The provenance of 622 obsidian artefacts (84 % of the total assemblage) was determined through a combination of visual characterization, together with noninvasive particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) and energy dispersion spectrometer of a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS) on millimeter-sized polished fragments. This is, by far, the largest sample of obsidian artefacts analyzed from a Corsican Neolithic site. All but one of the artefacts was found to be made of obsidian from sources associated with the volcanic complex of Monte Arci on the nearby island of Sardinia. Obsidian from each of the three major Monte Arci sources exploited during the Neolithic were identified, with a predominance of obsidians of the SA and SB2 types over the SC type. Only one artefact was shown to be made of obsidian from another source, namely, that on the island of Palmarola, in the Pontine Archipelago. The Monte Arci obsidian were procured in the form of small nodules that were then reduced on site, the knappers primarily producing flakes using an expedient and intensive technology. This tradition involved the production of very few types of formal implements, including geometrics and carving/boring tools, forms that are typical of the Tyrrhenian Cardial Early Neolithic. This is the earliest Neolithic culture on Corsica, whose appearance coincides with a major colonization of both Corsica and Sardinia. The significant presence of Sardinian obsidians in the southwestern Corsican site of Renaghju attests to early contacts between groups inhabiting these islands from the 6th millennium BC, while the Palmarola obsidian indicates occasional contacts with groups living on the Italian Peninsula. Alternatively, this “exotic” raw material’s presence at Renaghju might be viewed as the result of frequent and intensive movements of the first colonists in the Tyrrhenian area.
    Mots-clés : Anthropology, Archaeology, Chemistry/Food Science, general, Corsica, Early Cardial Neolithic, Earth Sciences, general, Geography (general), Life Sciences, general, Obsidian provenance, PIXE, Renaghju, SEM-EDS.

  • Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier, Poupeau, Gérard, Boussofara, Ridha, Dubernet, Stéphan, Moretto, Philippe, Compin, Matthieu, et Mulazzani, Simone.0 « Obsidians From The Kerkennah Islands (Eastern Tunisia) And The Pixe Elemental Compositions Of The Mediterranean Peralkaline Obsidians ». Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms.
    Résumé : The provenance of 37 obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (central Mediterranean Sea) was determined by PIXE. It is shown that they came from the two main obsidian sources, Balata dei Turchi and Lago di Venere, of the Pantelleria Island. A comparison of the PIXE elemental composition of geological vs. archaeological obsidians of central and western Mediterranean shows that their sources present elemental compositions homogeneous enough to make possible sourcing studies. However, a comparison between the distributions of geological and archaeological obsidians chemistry shows that the PIXE source qualifications do not cover yet the whole of their internal variations.
    Mots-clés : Kerkennah, Obsidian, PIXE, Provenance.

  • Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier, Poupeau, Gérard, Lorenzi, Françoise, Machut, Pierre, et Sicurani, Jean.0 « Typologie Et Provenance De L’Obsidienne Du Site Néolithique D’A Guaita (Nw Cap Corse, Corse, France) ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 13(4): 317-331.
    Résumé : Résumé La provenance d’une grande partie des obsidiennes du site néolithique corse d’A Guaita a été déterminée pour ses trois niveaux chronoculturels, soit entre la seconde moitié du VIe et le début du IVe millénaires avant notre ère. Les compositions élémentaires de 140 échantillons ont été obtenues par spectrométrie de dispersion en énergie en microscopie électronique à balayage (SEM–EDS) ou/et par analyse sous faisceau d’ions (PIXE). Cent trente-huit pièces proviennent de Sardaigne et deux de l’île de Palmarola. Ces résultats confirment la quasi-exclusivité de l’obsidienne sarde en Corse, et l’étendent à son extrémité nord. Les trois principaux types sardes SA, SB2 et SC sont représentés, avec une prédominance de SB2 et SC. La présence de deux obsidiennes venant de Palmarola suggère des contacts occasionnels avec la péninsule italienne dès le VIe millénaire, en accord avec les données sur la céramique. Abstract The provenance of a large fraction of the obsidians from the Neolithic site of A Guaita was determined for its three chronocultural layers, between the second half of the 6th millennium and the beginning of the 4th millennium. The elemental composition of 140 samples was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM–EDS) and/or ion beam analysis (PIXE). One hundred and thirty-eight obsidians were found to come from Sardinia and the remaining two from Palmarola Island. This result confirms the almost unique presence of Sardinian obsidians in Corsica and extends this observation to the northern end of the island. The three main Sardinian obsidian types, SA, SB2, and SC, are represented at A Guaita, with a predominance of SB2 and SC. The occurrence of two obsidians from Palmarola suggests that occasional contacts with the Italian Peninsula were in effect from the 6th millennium, in agreement with previous data from ceramics.
    Mots-clés : A Guaita, A Guaita, Corse, Corsica, Néolithique, Neolithic, Obsidian, Obsidienne, PIXE, Provenance, SEM–EDS, Typologie, Typology.

  • Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier, Poupeau, Gérard, Lorenzi, Françoise, Machut, Pierre, et Sicurani, Jean.0 « Corrigendum To “Typologie Et Provenance De L’Obsidienne Du Site Néolithique D’A Guaita (Nw Cap Corse, Corse, France)”[Cr Palevol 13 (4)(2014) 317–332] ». Comptes rendus-Palevol 6(13): 543.

  • Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth, Alçiçek, M. Cihat, Rochette, Pierre, Khatib, Samir, Vialet, Amélie, Boulbes, Nicolas, Bourlès, Didier L., Demory, François, Guipert, Gaspard, Mayda, Serdar, Titov, Vadim V., Vidal, Laurence, et de Lumley, Henry.0 « Dating The Homo Erectus Bearing Travertine From Kocabaş (Denizli, Turkey) At At Least 1.1 Ma ». Earth and Planetary Science Letters 390: 8-18.
    Résumé : Since its discovery within a travertine quarry, the fragmentary cranium of the only known Turkish Homo erectus , the Kocabaş hominid, has led to conflicting biochronological estimations. First estimated to be ∼500 ka∼500 ka old, the partial skull presents a combination of archaic and evolved features that puts it as an intermediate specimen between the Dmanisi fossils (Homo georgicus ) and the Chinese Zhoukoudian skulls (Homo erectus ) respectively dated to 1.8 to ∼0.8 Ma∼0.8 Ma. Here we present a multidisciplinary study combining sedimentological, paleontological and paleoanthropological observations together with cosmogenic nuclide concentration and paleomagnetic measurements to provide an absolute chronological framework for the Upper fossiliferous Travertine unit where the Kocabaş hominid and fauna were discovered. The 26Al/10Be burial ages determined on pebbles from conglomeratic levels framing the Upper fossiliferous Travertine unit, which exhibits an inverse polarity, constrains its deposition to before the Cobb Mountain sub-chron, that is between 1.22 and ∼1.5 Ma∼1.5 Ma. The alternative match of the normal polarity recorded above the travertine with the Jaramillo subchron (lower limit 1.07 Ma) may also be marginally compatible with cosmogenic nuclides interpretation, thus the proposed minimum age of 1.1 Ma for the end of massive travertine deposition. The actual age of the fossils is likely to be in the 1.1–1.3 Ma range. This absolute date is in close agreement with the paleoanthropological conclusions based on morphometric comparisons implying that Kocabaş hominid belongs to the Homo erectus s.l. group that includes Chinese and African fossils, and is different from Middle and Upper Pleistocene specimens. Furthermore, this date is confirmed by the large mammal assemblage, typical of the late Villafranchian. Because it attests to the antiquity of human occupation of the Anatolian Peninsula and one of the waves of settlements out of Africa, this work challenges the current knowledge of the Homo erectus dispersal over Eurasia.
    Mots-clés : Burial dating, Cosmogenic nuclide, Homo erectus, Paleomagnetism, Villafranchian.

  • Lebon, M., Zazzo, A., et Reiche, I.0 « Screening In Situ Bone And Teeth Preservation By Atr-Ftir Mapping ». Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
    Résumé : Bones and teeth are highly hierarchically structured and hererogeneous materials, and post mortem processes can reinforce this heterogeneity. It is therefore important to consider this heterogeneity to better understand diagenetic processes. In this study, ATR-FTIR mapping was applied to several heated and un-heated archaeological samples, and to similar modern references in order to test the potential of this method. ATR-FTIR mapping can provide spatially resolved information on alteration state of mineral and organic matter. This technique allowed to describe the spatial distribution of organic and mineral matter preservation in unheated Palaeolithic bones (Bize-Tournal, France) characterized by a better preservation in the centre of the cortical bone. Spatial variations in the chemical composition of an archaeological heated bone (Abri Pataud, France) compared to a modern reference suggested taphonomical uptake of carbonate in the most external part. This pattern could correspond to a process of re-carbonatation of the calcined mineral matter in the outermost part of the sample due to combustion in a CO2 rich atmosphere. FTIR-ATR is a powerful tool that allows for identifying and characterizing local heterogeneities in bone preservation. This technique open new prospects to reconstruct the taphonomical history of ancient samples.
    Mots-clés : ATR-FTIR mapping, Diagenesis, Fossil bone, Heated bone.

  • Lebreton, Vincent, Jaouadi, Sahbi, Mulazzani, Simone, Boujelben, Abdelkarim, Belhouchet, Lotfi, Gammar, Amor Mokhtar, Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie, Saliège, Jean-François, Karray, Mohamed Raouf, et Fouache, Eric.0 « Early Oleiculture Or Native Wild Olea In Eastern Maghreb: New Pollen Data From The Sebkha-Lagoon Halk El Menjel (Hergla, Central Tunisia) ». Environmental Archaeology.

  • Leplongeon, Alice.0 « Microliths In The Middle And Later Stone Age Of Eastern Africa: New Data From Porc-Epic And Goda Buticha Cave Sites, Ethiopia ». Quaternary International.
    Résumé : Microliths and microlithic industries are central to definitions of the Later Stone Age technologies. It is generally accepted that microliths are associated with a change to more complex hunting technologies and strategies. However, because there is evidence of microlith production in Middle Stone Age contexts, there are debates regarding the significance of the presence of microliths within an assemblage. This paper aims to analyse the microlithic component of Middle and Later Stone Age assemblages in the eastern Ethiopia region, by means of lithic assemblages from two major cave sites, Porc-Epic and Goda Buticha. This paper presents a short review of the different meanings of the term “microlith” and of the diversity of microlith-bearing assemblages in the Middle and Later Stone Age in sub-Saharan Africa. An analysis of the microliths is presented using a methodology which helps to distinguish intentionally produced versus accidentally produced microliths, from Porc-Epic and Goda Buticha assemblages. The results of this study indicate that no intentional microliths are present in Porc-Epic assemblages, in contrast with those recovered in the Goda Buticha assemblages. Interestingly, very few microliths are present in the Pleistocene Middle Stone Age levels; they are more numerous (but not overwhelmingly) in the Holocene Later Stone Age levels of these sites. These results contribute to the discussion of the role of microliths in the Middle and in the Later Stone Age in this particular region of eastern Ethiopia.

  • Magniez, Pierre, et Boulbes, Nicolas.0 « Environment During The Middle To Late Palaeolithic Transition In Southern France: The Archaeological Sequence Of Tournal Cave (Bize-Minervois, France) ». Quaternary International 337: 43–63.
    Résumé : Late Pleistocene deposits of Tournal Cave, southwestern France, provided several human occupations attributed to Mousterian, Aurignacian, and Magdalenian cultures. Some human remains (Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens) were identified in each unit. This study presents a detailed temporal reconstruction of habitats surrounding the cave, using various proxies based on rich large mammal assemblages and related to biological activities. The levels correlated to MIS 3 and MIS 2 are characterized by alternating carnivore, Neanderthal, and Anatomically Modern Human (AMH) occupations. Faunal exploitation was mainly oriented towards Equus caballus and Rangifer tarandus, with a significant increase in the latter prey from the last Aurignacian level onwards. The results exhibit geographic and temporal variations of reindeer and horse body size. Reindeer can be used as a suitable ecological marker, as rapid changes are correlated to environmental turnover, whereas the horse presents a different pattern and is an accurate chronological estimator. The palaeoecological results indicate a major climate change between the two Aurignacian levels. The Mousterian and the first Aurignacian levels, documenting the Middle to Late Palaeolithic transition, show high indices of specific richness and diversity of large mammals in relation with a periglacial moderate cold and wet climate. The region developed a mixed landscape and displayed a non-analogue fauna with E. caballus, R. tarandus, Cervus elaphus, Megaloceros giganteus, Bison priscus, Bos primigenius, Capra caucasica praepyrenaica, Sus scrofa and Coelodonta antiquitatis for the ungulates and Ursus spelaeus, Ursus arctos, Crocuta crocuta spelaea, Panthera leo spelaea, Panthera pardus, Lynx spelaeus, Canis lupus and Vulpes vulpes for the carnivores. The breakdown occurring in the last Aurignacian level is characterized by a change in ecological settings, with a colder and drier climate and opening of the landscape, involving shifts in seasonality, plant phenology, reindeer body size and animal population densities. This impacted habitat fragmentation and geographic distribution of populations, implying various selective pressures that were reflected in human meat procurement and dispersal events. At Tournal Cave, the late Middle/early Late Palaeolithic transition is not directly marked by significant differences in terms of faunal exploitation, due to local climate and site function, but the major environmental shift recorded is delayed. The results indicate that abrupt climate oscillations during MIS 3 contributed to the decline of Neanderthal populations, notably because of habitat fragmentation. AMHs could have generated additional stresses.

  • Malerba, Giancarla, Giacobini, Giacomo, Onoratini, Gérard, Arellano, Almudena, et Moullé, Pierre-Elie.0 « Entre Esthétique Et Symbolisme. L’Objet Gravettien En Stéatite De La Grotte Florestan (Grimaldi, Vintimille, Italie). Étude Descriptive Et Technologique ». L'Anthropologie 118(3): 292–308.

  • Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Alué, Ethel, Bailon, Salvador, Barshay-Szmidt, Carolyn, Béarez, Philippe, Crégut, Évelyne, Daujeard, Camille, Desclaux, Emmanuel, Debard, Évelyne, Lartigot-Campin, Anne-Sophie, Puaud, Simon, et Roger, Thierry.0 « Evaluating The Integrity Of Palaeoenvironmental And Archaeological Records In Mis 5 To 3 Karst Sequences From Southeastern France ». Quaternary International.
    Résumé : The preservation of palaeoenvironmental and archeological records in cave and rock shelter contexts is often called into question for Pleistocene sequences. Records are always fragmentary and the preservation of sediments and archaeological remains is partial and differential, according to site history. The karst deposits are often frequently described as disturbed due to post-depositional processes and phases of erosion over time. However, taphonomical analyses and some very well-preserved evidence attest to the capacity of caves to record data. Systematic and interdisciplinary fieldwork and studies allow for the reconstruction of some characteristics of Neanderthal occupations in their biostratigraphical and geochronological context. The geographic area under consideration here is the Rhône Valley. The right bank of the Middle Rhône Valley has yielded more than ten Middle Palaeolithic sites. Some of them have been studied recently through interdisciplinary fieldwork, providing new data on the end of the Middle Pleistocene and the beginning of the Upper Pleistocene. For this paper, we focus on four sites dated from the end of MIS 5, MIS 4 and the beginning of MIS 3, containing layers with evidence of Neanderthal occupations: Saint-Marcel, Abri du Maras, Abri des Pêcheurs and Le Figuier. All these sites are rock shelters or cave chambers and porches belonging to a karst system. The aim of our research program is to provide as much data as possible on Neanderthal occupations in their environmental contexts, in order to describe subsistence strategies and land use throughout time and potential links with climatic changes. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of assessing the relationship between climatic change and behaviour during the Middle Palaeolithic by describing the main archaeological material and palaeoenvironmental records of these four sites. Then, in the discussion, we conjointly examine the data from each site to assess this key question, even though the low resolution of cave and rock shelter records makes it difficult to establish an accurate chronology for human occupations and to provide a detailed description of the environment around the site for each human occupation.

  • Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Arzarello, Marta, Theodoropoulou, Angeliki, et Boulio, Yves.0 « Variabilité De L’Acheuléen De Plein Air Entre Rhône Et Loire (France) ». L'Anthropologie 118(4): 408–436.

  • Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Chacón, María Gema, La Porta, Alice, Fernandes, Paul, Hardy, Bruce, et Gallotti, Rosalia.0 « Fragmented Reduction Processes: Middle Palaeolithic Technical Behaviour In The Abri Du Maras Shelter, Southeastern France ». Quaternary International 350(18): 180–204.
    Résumé : New excavations at the Abri du Maras, located in the southeast of France, have yielded Middle Palaeolithic assemblages with evidence of rock shelter occupations in a cold climatic context contemporaneous with MIS 4. Few MIS 4 sites are known in this part of France and especially in this state of preservation. The paper is focused on one sedimentological layer divided into two archaeological levels (sub-levels 4.1 and 4.2). Our goal was to examine the Middle Palaeolithic lithic assemblage of these two levels by interdisciplinary approaches (technology, origin of flint and functional analysis of stone tools) in order to identify the technical strategies and the land-use patterns in a specific environmental context. The two occupations do not show differences in behaviours. The technical strategies applied to flint and other stones indicate a fragmentation of the reduction processes in a local and semi-local perimeter around the site. The main core technology is Levallois, generally on flint cortical cores on flakes. Flint flakes, blades and points are the main components of the series and the technological aims of the debitage. Due to the small size of the flakes used for flaking, large flint flakes, blades (Levallois or cortical) and Levallois points were produced elsewhere, to the north and south of the site (up to 20–30 km) according to the geological study, and then brought to the shelter. Flakes in other lithic materials (quartz, quartzite) were also knapped elsewhere before being transported to the shelter. Some of the large flint flakes, but also nodules and fragments of slabs, were then used for onsite flaking. Flake-tools are very rare. Evidence of impact fractures and TCSA/TCSPs values of the corpus of unretouched Levallois points suggest that some points, brought or prepared on the site, could have been used as projectile tips. The lithics attest to management of local and semi-local stones in a perimeter of 30 km around the site (possibly more due to some unidentified flint) and an anticipation of domestic needs in relation to reindeer hunting, the predominant activity. Imported artefacts and artefacts made on the site were used for the same diversity of activities and materials (butchery, plant and woodworking). The technological strategies and the type of management differ slightly from those from cave assemblages in the same area located in valleys and on low plateaux near the Rhône corridor, possibly due to the type of the site, a vast shelter. Data from the Abri du Maras are compared to data from the other Middle Palaeolithic sites of the region and the role of the topographic aspect of the site on the type of occupations is discussed.
    Mots-clés : Neanderthals, Shelter, Southeastern France, Technical behaviour, upper Pleistocene.

  • Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Puaud, Simon, Daujeard, Camille, Lateur, Nicolas, Lartigot-Campin, Anne-Sophie, Debard, Évelyne, Crégut-Bonnoure, Évelyne, et Raynal, Jean-Paul.0 « Le Site Du Ranc-Pointu No 2 À Saint-Martin-D’Ardèche : Une Occupation Du Paléolithique Moyen Ancien Dans Le Sud-Est De La France ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 13(2): 121-136.
    Résumé : Les nouveaux travaux effectués en 2008 au Ranc-Pointu no 2, grotte située au bord de l’Ardèche, ont permis de faire un bilan complet du remplissage et des vestiges attribués aux occupations humaines de cette petite cavité. Il semble bien qu’au moins une phase d’occupation humaine soit attestée (couche « c »). La plus récente (sommet de la couche « c ») a livré le plus grand nombre de matériel faunique et lithique. La couche « f » à la base n’a livré qu’un seul biface. Le corpus de la grande faune révisée suggère une amélioration climatique de la base vers le sommet, en accord avec les données sédimentologiques. La datation OSL de la couche archéologique (« c1 ») de 145,2 ± 9,2 ka est discutée sur la base des nouvelles données paléoenvironnementales et des industries. Aucun réel désaccord n’est mis en évidence et cette date pourrait donc attester une occupation humaine contemporaine de la fin du Pléistocène moyen (MIS 6). Elle apporterait ainsi la preuve d’une fréquentation humaine des rives de l’Ardèche au Paléolithique moyen ancien, comblant un hiatus chronologique dans ce secteur. À quelques centaines de mètres, les grottes du Figuier ou de Saint-Marcel livrent également des niveaux du Paléolithique moyen, mais ces niveaux sont rapportés à des périodes plus récentes du début du Pléistocène supérieur. Dans le département, seule la base de l’abri Moula-Guercy et le sommet de l’ensemble D de Payre, situés plus au nord, sont connus pour avoir enregistré des niveaux du MIS 6. New investigations conducted in 2008 at Ranc-Pointu No. 2, a small cave located along the Ardèche River, led to the complete revision of the infilling and assemblages, confirming at least one human occupation in this small cave. There may have been two periods of occupation, but only the main one located at the top of the sequence (level ‘c’) has been firmly established. Revision of the large mammal corpus and sedimentological data suggests climatic warming from the base to the top of the sequence. The OSL dating of sub-level ‘c1’ to 145 ka must be discussed in relation to the interdisciplinary results. It suggests that this cave was occupied at the end of MIS 6 and therefore that human populations were present in the Ardèche gorges at the end of the Middle Pleistocene. Ranc-Pointu No. 2 would thus represent older Middle Palaeolithic occupations than in other caves located along the Ardèche River, such as Le Figuier or Saint-Marcel. In the Ardèche French department, only the bottom of the Moula-Guercy sequence and the top of the sequence at the site of Payre, both of which are northern sites, have recorded MIS 6 deposits.
    Mots-clés : Archéozoologie, Comportements humains, France, Human behavior, Micromorphologie, Micromorphology, Middle Palaeolithic, Palaeontology, Paléolithique moyen, Paléontologie, Palynologie, Palynology, Sédimentologie, Sedimentology, Zooarchaeology.

  • Mussi, Margherita, Altamura, Flavio, Macchiarelli, Roberto, Melis, Rita T., et Spinapolice, Enza E.0 « Garba Iii (Melka Kunture, Ethiopia): A Msa Site With Archaic Homo Sapiens Remains Revisited ». Quaternary international 343: 28–39.
    Résumé : Garba III, in the upper Awash Valley of Ethiopia, is one of the many sub-sites of Melka Kunture, where the overall archaeological record starts at c. 1.8 Ma. Garba III was excavated over several years in the 1970s, under the direction of Francis Hours, who was able to publish only preliminary reports before his untimely death. At the base of the sequence, Acheulean layers were discovered and, above then, MSA layers characterized by ferruginous concretions, where three cranial fragments of Homo sapiens were also found. An age close to 150 ka was suggested for the human remains and associated industry of the upper layers, which are the focus of the current re-assessment. At the time, however, no clear-cut distinction was made between Acheulean and MSA. In 2011, the original site was re-located, geological trenches were dug, the stratigraphic sequence was documented in detail, and a geomorphological reconstruction was prepared. Lithic collections and anthropological remains, kept in Addis Ababa, were also re-studied. New field research highlights complex site formation processes, including cyclic phases of erosion and re-deposition of pre-existing soils and deposits. However, pedogenetic processes, which developed twice, also point to prolonged phases of stability, in good accordance with the state of preservation of the lithic industry, which is neither rolled nor fragmented. Small-sized obsidian pebbles were knapped, which were available locally in the alluvium deposits. The technological and typological analysis confirms that the lithic industry is Early MSA. A variety of knapping methods were in use, including the Levallois method, well established and mostly recurrent. Points were produced, as well as scrapers, denticulates, and scaled pieces. Circumstantial evidence points to an age not later than an early phase of MIS 5e. The anthropological remains, one of which was so far undescribed, are fragments of a right parietal bone, of a parietal or, more likely, of a frontal bone, and of an occipital bone. They contribute to the still scanty fossil record available at the key-time of the “archaic” H. sapiens emergence and early spread.

  • Nomade, S., Pastre, J. F., Guillou, H., Faure, M., Guérin, C., Delson, E., Debard, E., Voinchet, P., et Messager, E.0 « 40Ar/39Ar Constraints On Some French Landmark Late Pliocene To Early Pleistocene Large Mammalian Paleofaunas: Paleoenvironmental And Paleoecological Implications ». Quaternary Geochronology 21: 2-15.
    Résumé : To improve the French Plio-Pleistocene biostratigraphy scheme based on mammal biozone boundaries or “Mammal Neogene/Quaternary Zones” (MNQ) we collected volcanic material that could be dated using the 40Ar/39Ar method in five exceptional mammalian paleofauna sites located in the Massif Central (France). We present 40Ar/39Ar ages that we obtained for Perrier-Les Etouaires, Roca-Neyra, Chilhac, Senèze and le Creux de Peyrolles. We show that the overall stratigraphic position of these sites based on faunal assemblages is valid from the relative point of view. However, we greatly improve both the accuracy and precision of the age of these mammalian paleofaunas. We obtained 40Ar/39Ar ages varying between 2.78 ± 0.01 Ma (1σ external) for Les Etouaires (Lower MNQ 16b) and 1.47 ± 0.01 Ma for the Creux de Peyrolles site (MNQ 19). Based on these new dates we estimate the duration of several biozones including MNQ 16b, 17a and 17b. We suggest that the first Late Villafranchian biozone (MNQ 18) starts as early as the Reunion subchron or just after. The first occurrence of Equus stenonis in Roca-Neyra (i.e. 2.60 ± 0.02 Ma) is close to or synchronous with the Gauss–Matuyama transition (i.e. 2.59 Ma) and the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. The chronological framework we build shows the very rapid increase of the large grazers community in French faunal assemblages at the beginning of MNQ 17 (i.e. 2.6 to 2.4 Ma). This rapid faunal turnover is probably associated with a general decrease of woodland habitat in the Massif Central contemporaneous with the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciations. The faunal assemblages in France, Spain, and Italy covering the period between 2.1 and 2.0 Ma suggest that favorable conditions for early hominin settlement (mainly savannah prairies, grassland with open forest patches) existed in southwestern Europe at least 200 ka before the first traces of Homo in Eurasia. This period also shows the arrival of taxa originating in Asia and Africa, suggesting dispersal events within southwestern Europe well before the Olduvai subchron and with no indication (as yet) of Homo as a “fellow traveler”.
    Mots-clés : 40Ar/39Ar, Early Pleistocene, Homo, Terrestrial mammal biozones and dispersal.

  • Péan, Stéphane, et Prat, Sandrine.0 « Hommes Et Environnements Au Paléolithique Supérieur En Ukraine Continentale Et En Crimée: Introduction ». L'Anthropologie 118(5): 479–482.

  • Petrosino, P., Jicha, B. R., Mazzeo, F. C., et Russo Ermolli, E.0 « A High Resolution Tephrochronological Record Of Mis 14–12 In The Southern Apennines (Acerno Basin, Italy) ». Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 274: 34-50.
    Résumé : Lithological, mineralogical, and glass chemical analyses on juvenile fragments extracted from 20 tephra layers embedded within the lacustrine sediments of the Acerno Basin (Southern Apennines, Italy) were carried out together with four sanidine 40Ar/39Ar age determinations. The measured ages span the interval between 561 and 493 ka. Middle Pleistocene eruptive activity at Roman Province volcanoes was identified as the main possible source of the investigated tephra layers. Some of them were correlated with precise terrestrial counterparts corresponding to large explosive events of the Sabatini (e.g. Tufo Giallo della Via Tiberina) and Alban Hills volcanic districts (e.g. Tufo Pisolitico di Trigoria). The integration of tephrochronology and pollen analyses allowed the Acerno lacustrine sedimentation to be constrained between MIS 14 and 12, which overlaps with several well-studied, lacustrine successions of the Southern Apennines. The correlation with other tephrostratigraphic records from intramontane basins in central-southern Apennines testifies to the wide dispersal of at least three tephra layers that serve as marker layers, thus improving the resolution of the Middle Pleistocene Italian tephrostratotype.
    Mots-clés : 40Ar/39Ar dating, Latial volcanoes, Middle Pleistocene, Pollen, Tephrostratigraphy.

  • Pleurdeau, David, Hovers, Erella, Assefa, Zelalem, Asrat, Asfawossen, Pearson, Osbjorn, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, et Lam, Yin Man.0 « Cultural Change Or Continuity In The Late Msa/early Lsa Of Southeastern Ethiopia? The Site Of Goda Buticha, Dire Dawa Area ». Quaternary International 343: 117–135.
    Résumé : Goda Buticha is a newly discovered cave site in southeastern Ethiopia, containing MSA and LSA cultural material, faunal remains, beads, and human skeletal remains. A 2.3 m-deep sedimentary sequence records two occupational phases separated by a sharp chronological hiatus, in the Upper Pleistocene (∼ 43–31.5 ka cal BP) and in the mid- Holocene (7.8–4.7 ka cal BP). Faunal remains suggest changes in paleoecological conditions that are in agreement with patterns documented in regional speleothem-based reconstructions. The lithic assemblage at the base of the sequence is clearly MSA, with Levallois production, unifacial and bifacial points, relatively large debitage and use of local raw materials, associated with a microlithic component. The overlaying LSA assemblage contains diagnostic artifacts (backed microliths and bladelet production), with ubiquitous use of obsidian and MSA elements that appear in the Holocene. In the absence of indications for post-depositional mixture, the apparent cultural continuity of MSA elements from the Upper Pleistocene into the Middle Holocene at Goda Buticha may represent yet another variation of the elusive MSA/LSA transition. Goda Buticha is a key site for reevaluating the dynamics and tempo of this transition in eastern Africa.
    Mots-clés : Eastern Africa, Microliths, MSA–LSA transition, Southeastern Ethiopia, upper Pleistocene.

  • Raynal, Jean-Paul, Lafarge, Audrey, Rémy, Delphine, Delvigne, Vincent, Guadelli, Jean-Luc, Costamagno, Sandrine, Le Gall, Olivier, Daujeard, Camille, Vivent, Dominique, Fernandes, Paul, Le Corre-le Beux, Muriel, Vernet, Gérard, Bazile, Frédéric, et Lefèvre, David.0 « Datations Sma Et Nouveaux Regards Sur L’Archéo-Séquence Du Rond-Du-Barry (Polignac, Haute-Loire) ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 13(7): 623-636.
    Résumé : Résumé Trente-six dates radiocarbone par spectrométrie de masse par accélérateur, réalisées sur des restes fauniques appartenant chaque fois à un seul individu, précisent le découpage chrono-culturel de l’archéo-séquence de la grotte du Rond-du-Barry (Polignac, Haute-Loire). Reposant sur un complexe effondré dont la base n’a jamais été atteinte, l’unité archéo-stratigraphique H contenait du Paléolithique moyen récent, daté entre 40 et 33 ka BP. Le Paléolithique supérieur est représenté par l’unité archéo-stratigraphique F – avec trois secteurs d’occupation rapportés au Badegoulien et datés entre 20 et 17,5 ka BP – et par les unités archéo-stratigraphiques E et D, dont le Magdalénien moyen et supérieur est daté entre 15,4 et 12,4 ka BP. Dans l’unité E, un téphra (E6) appartient au lobe distal d’un nuage éruptif issu de la Chaîne des Puys, à plus de 100 km au sud de son origine. L’unité archéo-stratigraphique D a subi des perturbations au Mésolithique/Néolithique ancien, entre 6,5 et 4,9 ka BP. Ces résultats révèlent une complexité stratigraphique et spatiale du remplissage que les fouilles anciennes ont ignorée et renforcent l’intérêt d’entreprendre de nouveaux travaux. Abstract A series of 36 radiocarbon AMS ages produced from separate bone fragments has prompted a new appraisal of the archaeological sequence of the Rond-du-Barry Cave (Polignac, Haute-Loire). A huge rock-fall of unknown age underlies Unit H, which contains evidence of the oldest human occupation of the site consisting of a Middle Palaeolithic assemblage dated to between 40 and 33 kyr. The first Upper Palaeolithic occupation of the Cave occurred later. In Unit F, three Badegoulian occupation sectors can be identified that are dated to between 20 and 17.5 kyr. The uppermost units, E and D yielded Middle and Upper Magdalenian dates of between 15.4 and 12.4 kyr. Within Unit E, a tephra related layer (E6) is likely to belong to a distal southern lobe of an eruptive event that was centred in the Chaîne des Puys, 100 km to the north. Unit D shows evidence of being re-worked at least during Mesolithic/Neolithic times, circa 6.5/4.9 kyr. The sum of this new evidence demonstrates the existence of a previously unrecognised stratigraphic and spatial complexity within the Rond-du-Barry archaeological deposits, which demands that new investigations be made in this cave.
    Mots-clés : Antler, Badegoulian, Badegoulien, Bois de renne, Bone, Magdalénien, Magdalenian, Mass spectrometry, Moustérien, Mousterian, Os, Radiocarbon, Radiocarbone, Spectrométrie de masse par accélérateur, Téphra, Tephra.

  • Rendu, William, Beauval, Cédric, Crevecoeur, Isabelle, Bayle, Priscilla, Balzeau, Antoine, Bismuth, Thierry, Bourguignon, Laurence, Delfour, Géraldine, Faivre, Jean-Philippe, Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François, Tavormina, Carlotta, Todisco, Dominique, Turq, Alain, et Maureille, Bruno.0 « Evidence Supporting An Intentional Neandertal Burial At La Chapelle-Aux-Saints ». Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(1): 81-86.
    Résumé : The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.
    Mots-clés : Archaeology, Middle Paleolithic, Mousterian burial, symbolic behavior, Taphonomy.

  • Reyes-Centeno, Hugo, Ghirotto, Silvia, Détroit, Florent, Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique, Barbujani, Guido, et Harvati, Katerina.0 « Genomic And Cranial Phenotype Data Support Multiple Modern Human Dispersals From Africa And A Southern Route Into Asia ». Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(20): 7248-7253.
    Résumé : Despite broad consensus on Africa as the main place of origin for anatomically modern humans, their dispersal pattern out of the continent continues to be intensely debated. In extant human populations, the observation of decreasing genetic and phenotypic diversity at increasing distances from sub-Saharan Africa has been interpreted as evidence for a single dispersal, accompanied by a series of founder effects. In such a scenario, modern human genetic and phenotypic variation was primarily generated through successive population bottlenecks and drift during a rapid worldwide expansion out of Africa in the Late Pleistocene. However, recent genetic studies, as well as accumulating archaeological and paleoanthropological evidence, challenge this parsimonious model. They suggest instead a “southern route” dispersal into Asia as early as the late Middle Pleistocene, followed by a separate dispersal into northern Eurasia. Here we test these competing out-of-Africa scenarios by modeling hypothetical geographical migration routes and assessing their correlation with neutral population differentiation, as measured by genetic polymorphisms and cranial shape variables of modern human populations from Africa and Asia. We show that both lines of evidence support a multiple-dispersals model in which Australo-Melanesian populations are relatively isolated descendants of an early dispersal, whereas other Asian populations are descended from, or highly admixed with, members of a subsequent migration event.
    Mots-clés : cranial diversity, genome diversity, human evolution, modern human origins, SNPs.

  • Rosina, Pierluigi, Voinchet, Pierre, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Cristovão, Jorge, et Falguères, Christophe.0 « Dating The Onset Of Lower Tagus River Terrace Formation Using Electron Spin Resonance ». Journal of Quaternary Science 29(2): 153-162.
    Résumé : In the Western Iberian Peninsula, staircases of fluvial terraces have been the subject of several recent studies. In particular, many recent publications have focused on the Quaternary fluvial chronostratigraphy of the Lower Tagus Basin. However, there are still doubts with respect to the timing of the first incision into the late Tertiary basin-fill deposits, their upper part already recording a fluvial environment (‘basin inversion’), which was the start of terrace formation. This is because most dating methods are ineffective for this type of deposit (generally without organic and/or volcanic materials). In the last 10 years, new dating methods such as electron spin resonance (ESR) applied to sedimentary quartz now facilitate more accurate chronologies. This paper presents the results of the ESR dating of the older terraces of the lower Tagus Basin, Portugal, with extrapolation on the age of early drainage network evolution. According the results, the oldest fluvial terrace was formed around 900 ka, so the origination of the Portuguese Tagus River terrace system can be attributed to the final part of the Early Pleistocene.
    Mots-clés : ESR dates of sedimentary quartz, fluvial incision, onset of the staircase formation, Quaternary fluvial terraces, Tagus River.

  • Salavert, Aurélie, Messager, Erwan, Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute, Giedre, Lebreton, Vincent, Bayle, Grégory, Crépin, Laurent, Puaud, Simon, Péan, Stéphane, Yamada, Masayoshi, et Yanevich, Aleksander.0 « First Results Of Archaeobotanical Analysis From Neolithic Layers Of Buran Kaya Iv (Crimea, Ukraine) ». Environmental Archaeology.
    Résumé : This paper contributes to understand the palaeoenvironment and the exploitation of vegetal resources during the Mid-Holocene in the southern Crimean Mountains. To address these questions, we apply a multi-proxy approach based on charcoal, seeds/fruits and phytoliths analyses from Neolithic layers (5800–5300 cal BC) of Buran-Kaya IV, a rock-shelter located in the south of Crimean Peninsula. Charcoal analysis shows that the Neolithic groups have exploited the Quercus petraeae forest belt composed mainly of Quercus, Carpinus and Acer. The identification of Fagus and a fragment of gymnosperm, which developed in upland areas, suggests the mobility of inhabitants of BK IV. According seed and phytolith analyses, it is more likely that the Neolithic groups did not practice agriculture on the site, and that their diet was not based on crop production. Furthermore, considering the probable absence of domestic animals in the layer 2, the economy may essentially be based on hunting-gathering at Buran Kaya IV.

  • Salesse, K., Dufour, E., Lebon, M., Wurster, C., Castex, D., Bruzek, J., et Zazzo, A.0 « Variability Of Bone Preservation In A Confined Environment: The Case Of The Catacomb Of Sts Peter And Marcellinus (Rome, Italy) ». Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 416: 43–54.
    Résumé : Most of the studies investigating the diagenetic trajectory of fossil bones focus on open-air sites and very little work have been published in confined environments such as catacombs. While the stable thermal history of catacombs should favor bone preservation, the accumulation of corpses over a short period of time could favor their destruction. The aim of this study is to describe the diagenetic trajectory of 128 human bone samples coming from six different burial chambers of the catacomb of Sts Peter and Marcellinus (SSPM, Rome, Italy). A multi-proxy approach was undertaken to provide an assessment of the molecular preservation as well as a direct record of the isotopic composition itself. Collagen yield, carbon and nitrogen abundances, C:N ratio, FT-IR based collagen and carbonate contents and crystallinity index, radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analysis of bone collagen and carbonate indicate that both the mineral and the organic fractions are impacted by diagenesis to various degrees, and that bones originating from the small burial chambers are more affected than those coming from the large ones. While some of the bones were strongly recrystallized, the impact of bone diagenesis on the stable isotope values of bone carbonate was limited. Comparison with contemporary sites from the Latium showed that conditions prevailing in catacombs seem overall to favor, rather than disadvantage bone preservation.
    Mots-clés : Apatite, Collagen, Diagenesis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Radiocarbon, stable isotopes.

  • Saos, Thibaud, Djerrab, Abderrezak, et Defleur, Alban.0 « Étude Stratigraphique, Sédimentologique Et Magnétique Des Dépôts Pléistocène Moyen Et Supérieur De La Baume Moula-Guercy (Soyons, Ardèche) ». Quaternaire 25(3): 195–208.

  • Schmidt, Patrick.0 « What Causes Failure (Overheating) During Lithic Heat Treatment? ». Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 6(2): 107-112.
    Résumé : Heat treatment of lithic raw material, i.e. the intentional alteration of silica rocks for improving their knapping quality, is a process that may require great care and precisely controlled conditions in order to avoid failure due to overheating. The physical causes of overheating remain poorly understood leading to problems in the interpretation of heat-treated artefacts and/or fire-related taphonomic alteration of different types of silica rocks. This driving force of overheating is investigated by a set of experimental heat treatment sequences with different ramp rates and different volumes of flint with a well-defined mineralogical composition, porosity and water content. The results of this experiment show the main cause of heat-induced fracturing to be the vapour pressure in fluid inclusions within the rocks. Heterogeneous thermal expansion could be discarded. The interdependence between volume and heating rate is also shown. These results have implications for the study of archaeological heat-treated rocks, the understanding of taphonomic heat-induced fracturing of silica rocks and experimental flint knapping.
    Mots-clés : Anthropology, Archaeology, Chemistry/Food Science, general, Earth Sciences, general, Flint, Flint knapping, Geography (general), Heat treatment, Life Sciences, general, Lithic raw material, Overheating, Thermal alteration.

  • Shao, Qingfeng, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Dolo, Jean-Michel, et Falguères, Christophe.0 « Monte Carlo Approach To Calculate Us-Esr Age And Age Uncertainty For Tooth Enamel ». Quaternary Geochronology 22: 99-106.
    Résumé : The combination of electron spin resonance (ESR) and U-series dating approach is increasingly being used to fossil teeth from archaeological sites. A rigorous age uncertainty assessment is needed for this dating method. However, it is difficult to provide partial derivatives of the combined ESR/U-series (US) model, as required by the law of propagation of uncertainties. In this study, we developed a new age calculation MATLAB program, called USESR, using a Monte Carlo approach for estimating the age and the age uncertainty for tooth enamel. Tests have been performed with virtual samples (n = 64). The results suggest that this Monte Carlo approach can provide reliable US-ESR age and reduced age uncertainty in comparison with those obtained by the routinely used program, DATA. The results also show that the new program has higher tolerance limits of U-series disequilibrium than the DATA program for US-ESR age calculations.
    Mots-clés : DATA program, Monte Carlo simulation, Uncertainty, US-ESR age, USESR program.

  • Shao, Qingfeng, Wang, Wei, Deng, Chenglong, Voinchet, Pierre, Lin, Min, Zazzo, Antoine, Douville, Eric, Dolo, Jean-Michel, Falguères, Christophe, et Bahain, Jean-Jacques.0 « Esr, U-Series And Paleomagnetic Dating Of Gigantopithecus Fauna From Chuifeng Cave, Guangxi, Southern China ». Quaternary Research 82(1): 270–280.
    Résumé : Several Gigantopithecus faunas associated with taxonomically undetermined hominoid fossils and/or stone artifacts are known from southern China. These faunas are particularly important for the study of the evolution of humans and other mammals in Asia. However, the geochronology of the Gigantopithecus faunas remains uncertain. In order to solve this problem, a program of geochronological studies of Gigantopithecus faunas in Guangxi Province was recently initiated. Chuifeng Cave is the first studied site, which yielded 92 Gigantopithecus blacki teeth associated with numerous other mammalian fossils. We carried out combined ESR/U-series dating of fossil teeth and sediment paleomagnetic studies. Our ESR results suggest that the lower layers at this cave can be dated to 1.92 ± 0.14 Ma and the upper layers can be dated to older than 1.38 ± 0.17 Ma. Correlation of the recognized magnetozones to the geomagnetic polarity timescale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and ESR data. The combined chronologies establish an Olduvai subchron (1.945–1.778 Ma) for the lowermost Chuifeng Cave sediments. We also analyzed the enamel δ13C values of the Gigantopithecus faunas. Our results show that southern China was dominated by C3 plants during the early Pleistocene and that the Gigantopithecus faunas lived in a woodland-forest ecosystem.
    Mots-clés : Chuifeng Cave, Early Pleistocene, Enamel δ13C, ESR dating of fossil teeth, Gigantopithecus fauna, Paleomagnetism.

  • Stoetzel, Emmanuelle, Campmas, Emilie, Michel, Patrick, Bougariane, Bouchra, Ouchaou, Brahim, Amani, Fethi, El Hajraoui, Mohamed Abdejalil, et Nespoulet, Roland.0 « Context Of Modern Human Occupations In North Africa: Contribution Of The Témara Caves Data ». Quaternary International 320: 143-161.
    Résumé : El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra caves are located in the region of Témara, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, which was occupied by human populations since the beginning of the Late Pleistocene (around 120 ka BP) until the Middle Holocene (around 6 ka BP). Recent excavations yielded human and faunal remains, as well as exceptional archaeological objects (Middle, Upper Palaeolithic and Neolithic industries; ceramics; ornaments in Nassarius sp. shells; bone tools; pigments) associated with anthropic structures. The continuous sedimentary sequence of these sites covers the last climatic cycle (from the Eemian interglacial to the present one), and is studied in a renewed context from several points of view: geology, stratigraphy, chronology, cultures, anthropology, palaeontology, taphonomy, and zooarchaeology. Today, there is no equivalent of such regional data for the whole Late Pleistocene in North Africa. The study of small and large faunal remains, associated with chronological data, allowed us to obtain significant data on palaeoenvironments and human/carnivore occupations of the Témara caves. These data are included in a broader view of human occupations and their environmental context throughout North Africa during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  • Vaquero, Manuel, Bargalló, Amèlia, Chacón, María Gema, Romagnoli, Francesca, et Sañudo, Pablo.0 « Lithic Recycling In A Middle Paleolithic Expedient Context: Evidence From The Abric Romaní (Capellades, Spain) ». Quaternary International.
    Résumé : The aim of this paper is to present a general overview of the lithic recycling identified in the Middle Paleolithic layers of the Abric Romaní site. The archeological layers excavated thus far, spanning from 40 to 56 ka BP, have provided significant evidence suggesting that recycling of artifacts was a behavior fully integrated in lithic provisioning strategies. The characteristics of the Abric Romaní formation processes allow the recognition of most of the different types of data usually considered proxies of recycling: the reuse of patinated or burned artifacts, the use of a single artifact for different functions, successive knapping events on the same core, the reduction of flakes as cores, etc. In particular, the information provided by refitting and spatial analysis should be emphasized. We will pay special attention to the spatial and refitting data from level M, which is dated between 51 and 55 ka BP, by focusing on the intrasite transport of artifacts and of core-on-flake reduction sequences as potential evidence of recycling. The results indicate that recycling may have a spatial dimension that allows the differentiation between source areas and recycling areas in which technical needs are partly fulfilled by picking up previously discarded items.
    Mots-clés : Abric Romaní, Core-on-flake, Middle Paleolithic, Recycling, Refitting, Spatial analysis.

  • Vialet, Amélie, Guipert, Gaspard, Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat, et de Lumley, Marie-Antoinette.0 « La Calotte Crânienne De L’Homo Erectus De Kocabaş (Bassin De Denizli, Turquie) ». L'Anthropologie 118(1): 74-107.
    Résumé : En 2002, une calotte crânienne fragmentaire a été découverte dans le bassin de Denizli, localité de Kocabaş, dans le sud-ouest de la Turquie (Kappelman et al., 2008). Elle a été attribuée à un Homo erectus sur la base de la parenté morphologique et métrique observée avec les fossiles chinois de Zhoukoudian L-C ( Vialet et al., 2012). Sur la base d’une nouvelle reconstitution 3D de ce fossile, dont seul l’os frontal et des fragments d’os pariétaux sont conservés, une analyse morphologique et morphométrique (2D et 3D) plus approfondie a été menée à bien. Les résultats confirment que le spécimen de Kocabaş, par la morphologie de son os frontal, sa conformation et ses dimensions, se distingue nettement des Homo habilis-Homo georgicus d’une part et des Homo heidelbergensis-Néandertaliens d’autre part. En revanche, il partage avec les Homo erectus, tant africains (KNM-ER3733, OH9, Daka-Bouri) qu’asiatiques (crânes de Zhoukoudian L-C, Nankin 1, Sangiran 17), des caractères métriques, une constriction post-orbitaire marquée, un torus supra-orbitaire bordé postérieurement par un sulcus supra-toral et présentant inférieurement, une incisure et un tubercule supra-orbitaires, des lignes temporales en position moyennement hautes délimitant une zone infra-temporale au bombement net. Cependant, Kocabaş se différencie par les proportions de son os frontal (considéré hors torus supra-orbitaire), qui est court et large, des Homo erectus asiatiques, chez qui l’écaille frontale est plus longue. Il partage cette disposition avec les Homo erectus africains. De ce fait, le fossile turc se positionne comme un intermédiaire entre les Homo erectus d’Afrique et d’Asie, tant d’un point de vue anatomique que géographique. Étant donné les nouvelles datations proposées, au-delà de 1,1 Ma, pour ce fossile ( Lebatard et al., 2014a, Lebatard et al., 2014b, Khatib et al., 2014 and Boulbes et al., 2014), il contribue, avec OH9 (1,4–1,5 Ma) et Daka-Bouri (1 Ma), à combler une lacune paléoanthropologique, se situant entre KNM-ER3733 (1,78 Ma) et les fossiles chinois de Zhoukoudian L-C, Sangiran 17 (plus récents que 0,78 Ma) et Nankin 1 (environ 0,63 Ma). Cette étude, portant essentiellement sur l’os frontal, incite à considérer Homo erectus comme une espèce à vaste répartition géochronologique et forte variabilité morphométrique. In 2002, a fragmentary skullcap was discovered in Denizli basin, in the locality of Kocabaş, in the southwest of Turkey (Kappelman et al., 2008). The skullcap was ascribed to Homo erectus on the basis of morphological and metric similarities with the Chinese fossils from Zhoukoudian L-C ( Vialet et al., 2012). An in-depth morphological and metric analysis (2D and 3D) was carried out on a new 3D reconstruction of the fossil, made up of the frontal bone and parietal fragments. The results confirm that the morphology of the frontal bone, the conformation and the dimensions of the Kocabaş specimen, clearly differentiate it from Homo habilis-Homo georgicus, on one hand, and Homo heidelbergensis-Neanderthal, on the other. It displays similar metric characteristics to African (KNM-ER3733, OH9, Daka-Bouri) and Asian (skulls from Zhoukoudian L-C, Nankin 1, Sangiran 17) Homo erectus, a marked post-orbital constriction, a supraorbital torus bordered posteriorly by a supratoral sulcus and showing, on its inferior border, a supraorbital notch and tuber, temporal lines in a medium high position delimiting an infratemporal frontal zone with a clear bulge. However, the proportions of the short and large Kocabaş frontal bone (without the supraorbital torus) differentiate it from Asian Homo erectus, which present a longer squama frontalis. This feature is also present on African Homo erectus. Consequently, the Turkish fossil appears to be intermediary between the Homo erectus from Africa and Asia, both from an anatomic and geographic point of view. In the light of the new dates advanced for this fossil, at least 1.1 Ma ( Lebatard et al., 2014a, Lebatard et al., 2014b, Khatib et al., 2014 and Boulbes et al., 2014), it contributes, along with OH9, to bridging a palaeoanthropological gap between KNM-ER3733 (1.78 Ma) and the Chinese fossils from Zhoukoudian L-C, Sangiran 17 (earlier than 0.78 Ma) and Nankin 1 (approximately 0.63 Ma). This study, which mainly concerns the frontal bone, implies that Homo erectus is a species with a vast geochronological distribution and marked morphometric variability.
    Mots-clés : 3D morphometric geometry, 3D reconstruction, Frontal bone, Homo georgicus, Homo habilis, Homo heidelbergensis, Morphométrie 2D et 3D, Néandertal, Neandertal, Os frontal, Reconstitution 3D.

  • Voisin, J.-L., Ropars, M., et Thomazeau, H.0 « L’Acromion Humain: Une Vue Évolutionniste ». Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique 100(8): S332–S337.

  • Willmes, M., McMorrow, L., Kinsley, L., Armstrong, R., Aubert, M., Eggins, S., Falguères, C., Maureille, B., Moffat, I., et Grün, R. 2014. « The Irhum (Isotopic Reconstruction Of Human Migration) Database - Bioavailable Strontium Isotope Ratios For Geochemical Fingerprinting In France ». Earth System Science Data 6(1): 117-122.

  • Zanolli, Clément, Bondioli, Luca, Coppa, Alfredo, Dean, Christopher M., Bayle, Priscilla, Candilio, Francesca, Capuani, Silvia, Dreossi, Diego, Fiore, Ivana, Frayer, David W., Libsekal, Yosief, Mancini, Lucia, Rook, Lorenzo, Medin Tekle, Tsegai, Tuniz, Claudio, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « The Late Early Pleistocene Human Dental Remains From Uadi Aalad And Mulhuli-Amo (Buia), Eritrean Danakil: Macromorphology And Microstructure ». Journal of Human Evolution 74: 96–113.
    Résumé : Fieldwork performed during the last 15 years in various Early Pleistocene East African sites has significantly enlarged the fossil record of Homo erectus sensu lato (s.l.). Additional evidence comes from the Danakil Depression of Eritrea, where over 200 late Early to early Middle Pleistocene sites have been identified within a ∼1000 m-thick sedimentary succession outcropping in the Dandiero Rift Basin, near Buia. Along with an adult cranium (UA 31), which displays a blend of H. erectus-like and derived morpho-architectural features and three pelvic remains, two isolated permanent incisors (UA 222 and UA 369) have also been recovered from the 1 Ma (millions of years ago) Homo-bearing outcrop of Uadi Aalad. Since 2010, our surveys have expanded to the nearby (4.7 km) site of Mulhuli-Amo (MA). This is a fossiliferous area that has been preliminarily surveyed because of its exceptional concentration of Acheulean stone tools. So far, the site has yielded 10 human remains, including the unworn crown of a lower permanent molar (MA 93). Using diverse analytical tools (including high resolution μCT and μMRI), we analysed the external and internal macromorphology and microstructure of the three specimens, and whenever possible compared the results with similar evidence from early Homo, H. erectus s.l., H. antecessor, H. heidelbergensis (from North Africa), Neanderthals and modern humans. We also assessed the UA 369 lower incisor from Uadi Aalad for root completion timing and showed that it compares well with data for root apex closure in modern human populations.
    Mots-clés : Buia, East Africa, External morphology, Homo erectus/ergaster, Internal structure, teeth.
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