The occupation of Neanderthals and modern humans in the Swabian Jura of Germany is well documented by the rich archaeological record from several caves in the region. Some sites are particularly known for the mobiliary art and musical instruments dating to the Aurignacian, which bring us back to the question : what were the differences between Neanderthals and modern humans in Europe ? Faunal remains from the site of Hohlenstein-Stadel, known for the discovery of Lionman, have been reanalyzed for the purpose of understanding the subsistence pattern and the cave use from the Middle Paleolithic to the Aurignacian. The results were then compared to other deposits to obtain a regional picture. The findings suggest clear differences in the degree of occupation intensity practiced by modern humans, which is reflected in the assemblage of non-prey animals. At the same time, we observe inter-site variability, which makes us conclude that the caves served multiple functions including practical as well as symbolic purposes.