Nos tutelles

Nos partenaires


Accueil du site > Publications > Productions scientifiques depuis 2010 - base de données (en test)

UMR7194 - Publications dans des revues indexées (2012)

par Détroit Florent - publié le , mis à jour le

Cette page est en cours de test (la base de données n’est pas complète)

- aller aux publications : depuis 2010

- aller aux publications de l’année : 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010


  • Arnold, L.J., Duval, M., Falguères, C., Bahain, J.-J., et Demuro, M.0 « Portable Gamma Spectrometry With Cerium-Doped Lanthanum Bromide Scintillators: Suitability Assessments For Luminescence And Electron Spin Resonance Dating Applications ». Radiation Measurements 47(1): 6-18.
    Résumé : Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) crystals offer a range of improved scintillation properties over traditional NaI:Tl crystals for in situ gamma spectrometry. At present, however, it remains unclear whether the internal radioactivity of LaBr3:Ce detectors compromises their suitability for low-level activity radioisotope measurements of natural sedimentary deposits, such as those required in luminescence and electron spin resonance (ESR) dating. In this study we investigate the suitability of a commercial LaBr3:Ce detector for measuring individual concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th using predefined ‘energy windows’ from gamma ray spectra. Performance tests have been undertaken using reference materials with well-constrained radioisotope concentrations (the Oxford calibration blocks) and compared with results obtained for a NaI:Tl detector of the same geometry. These tests reveal that the LaBr3:Ce detector has a non-negligible intrinsic activity that needs to be accurately quantified prior to measuring any gamma ray spectra in the field. Compared to the NaI:Tl detector, the energy resolution of the LaBr3:Ce detector is improved by a factor of two, or more, for the main indicator isotope photopeaks in the 40K, 238U and 232Th decay series. Signal-to-noise ratios for the LaBr3:Ce detector show a 25–35% improvement over those of the NaI:Tl detector. In addition, the LaBr3:Ce detector is characterised by suitable energy linearity over the full spectral range of interest for the 40K, 238U and 232Th decay series. Replicate gamma ray measurements made with the LaBr3:Ce and NaI:Tl detectors for 20 natural sedimentary samples from the Lower Tejo River basin, Portugal, and the Duero River basin, Spain, yield consistent radioisotope concentrations and gamma dose rate estimates. These results are encouraging and suggest that LaBr3:Ce detectors can provide suitable estimates of individual radioisotope concentrations in low-level activity (0.5–1.5 Gy/ka) environments, providing that their intrinsic activity is adequately measured and subtracted from field spectra. Our comparison also reveals that subtraction of the intrinsic activity from LaBr3:Ce spectra produces a significant reduction in the precision with which radionuclide concentrations can be determined using the ‘energy windows’ approach. This shortcoming necessitates longer counting times in natural sedimentary environments and overshadows the practical advantages that LaBr3:Ce detectors might otherwise offer for luminescence and ESR dating applications.
    Mots-clés : Electron spin resonance dating, Lanthanum bromide, Luminescence dating, Portable gamma ray spectrometry, Scintillator detectors, Sodium iodide.

  • Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Falguères, Christophe, Laurent, Michel, Shao, Qingfeng, Dolo, Jean-Michel, Garcia, Tristan, Douville, Eric, Frank, Norbert, Monnier, Jean-Laurent, Hallégouët, Bernard, Laforge, Marine, Huet, Briagell, Auguste, Patrick, Liouville, Marie, Serre, Frédérik, et Gagnepain, Jean.0 « Esr And Esr/u-Series Dating Study Of Several Middle Palaeolithic Sites Of Pléneuf-Val-André (Brittany, France): Piégu, Les Vallées And Nantois ». Quaternary Geochronology 10: 424-429.
    Résumé : The area of Pléneuf-Val-André, Brittany, France, has delivered several Palaeolithic sites containing palaeontological remains, very rare into this granitic area. In order to precise the stratigraphical framework of the prehistoric human occupations of this zone, an ESR dating program was initiated in the late 1980s and different kinds of materials (mammal bones and teeth, naturally bleached quartz extracted from marine or aeolian sediments and marine mollusc shells) were then sampled for geochronological analyses. The present paper displays the main obtained results on three stratigraphically connected middle Palaeolithic sites: Piégu, Les Vallées and Nantois. The results are consistent with the regional chronostratigraphic framework and permit to suggest palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the area and the dating of the various archaeological evidences.
    Mots-clés : Bones and teeth, ESR, ESR/U-series, Middle Pleistocene, Mollusc shell, Mousterian, Sedimentary quartz.

  • Balzeau, Antoine, Gilissen, Emmanuel, et Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique.0 « Shared Pattern Of Endocranial Shape Asymmetries Among Great Apes, Anatomically Modern Humans, And Fossil Hominins ». PLoS ONE 7(1): e29581.
    Résumé : Anatomical asymmetries of the human brain are a topic of major interest because of their link with handedness and cognitive functions. Their emergence and occurrence have been extensively explored in human fossil records to document the evolution of brain capacities and behaviour. We quantified for the first time antero-posterior endocranial shape asymmetries in large samples of great apes, modern humans and fossil hominins through analysis of “virtual” 3D models of skull and endocranial cavity and we statistically test for departures from symmetry. Once based on continuous variables, we show that the analysis of these brain asymmetries gives original results that build upon previous analysis based on discrete traits. In particular, it emerges that the degree of petalial asymmetries differs between great apes and hominins without modification of their pattern. We indeed demonstrate the presence of shape asymmetries in great apes, with a pattern similar to modern humans but with a lower variation and a lower degree of fluctuating asymmetry. More importantly, variations in the position of the frontal and occipital poles on the right and left hemispheres would be expected to show some degree of antisymmetry when population distribution is considered, but the observed pattern of variation among the samples is related to fluctuating asymmetry for most of the components of the petalias. Moreover, the presence of a common pattern of significant directional asymmetry for two components of the petalias in hominids implicates that the observed traits were probably inherited from the last common ancestor of extant African great apes and Homo sapiens. These results also have important implications for the possible relationships between endocranial shape asymmetries and functional capacities in hominins. It emphasizes the uncoupling between lateralized activities, some of them well probably distinctive to Homo, and large-scale cerebral lateralization itself, which is not unique to Homo.

  • Balzeau, Antoine, Holloway, Ralph L., et Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique.0 « Variations And Asymmetries In Regional Brain Surface In The Genus Homo ». Journal of Human Evolution 62(6): 696-706.
    Résumé : Paleoneurology is an important field of research within human evolution studies. Variations in size and shape of an endocast help to differentiate among fossil hominin species whereas endocranial asymmetries are related to behavior and cognitive function. Here we analyse variations of the surface of the frontal, parieto-temporal and occipital lobes among different species of Homo, including 39 fossil hominins, ten fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens and 100 endocasts of extant modern humans. We also test for the possible asymmetries of these features in a large sample of modern humans and observe individual particularities in the fossil specimens. This study contributes important new information about the brain evolution in the genus Homo. Our results show that the general pattern of surface asymmetry for the different regional brain surfaces in fossil species of Homo does not seem to be different from the pattern described in a large sample of anatomically modern H. sapiens, i.e., the right hemisphere has a larger surface than the left, as do the right frontal, the right parieto-temporal and the left occipital lobes compared with the contra-lateral side. It also appears that Asian Homo erectus specimens are discriminated from all other samples of Homo, including African and Georgian specimens that are also sometimes included in that taxon. The Asian fossils show a significantly smaller relative size of the parietal and temporal lobes. Neandertals and anatomically modern H. sapiens, who share the largest endocranial volume of all hominins, show differences when considering the relative contribution of the frontal, parieto-temporal and occipital lobes. These results illustrate an original variation in the pattern of brain organization in hominins independent of variations in total size. The globularization of the brain and the enlargement of the parietal lobes could be considered derived features observed uniquely in anatomically modern H. sapiens.
    Mots-clés : Autapomorphy, Cerebral lobe proportions, Endocasts, Hominin brain evolution, Paleoneurology.

  • Beck, L., Cuif, J.-P., Pichon, L., Vaubaillon, S., Dambricourt Malassé, A., et Abel, R.L.0 « Checking Collagen Preservation In Archaeological Bone By Non-Destructive Studies (Micro-Ct And Iba) ». Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 273: 203-207.
    Résumé : The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon–Hydrogen–Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14C dating.
    Mots-clés : Bone, Carbon 14, EBS, ERDA, PIXE, RBS.

  • Beck, L., Salomon, H., Lahlil, S., Lebon, M., Odin, G. P., Coquinot, Y., et Pichon, L.0 « Non-Destructive Provenance Differentiation Of Prehistoric Pigments By External Pixe ». Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 273: 173-177.
    Résumé : The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave “La grotte du Renne” in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000–34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe–K or Mn–K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.
    Mots-clés : Arcy-sur-Cure, Ochre, Petrography, PIXE, Prehistoric pigment, Provenance.

  • Beck, Lucile, Rousselière, Hélène, Castaing, Jacques, Duran, Adrian, Lebon, Matthieu, Lahlil, Sophia, et Plassard, Frédéric.0 « Analyse In Situ Des Dessins Préhistoriques De La Grotte De Rouffignac Par Fluorescence X Et Diffraction X Portable ». ArchéoSciences. Revue d'archéométrie (36): 139-152.
    Résumé : La Grotte de Rouffignac (Dordogne, France) est un site d'art paléolithique qui renferme de nombreux dessins réalisés au trait noir (mammouths, bisons, rhinocéros laineux, chevaux, bouquetins...). Bien qu'aucune datation directe n'ait été réalisée à ce jour, les œuvres graphiques de cette caverne sont en général rattachées au Magdalénien.
    Mots-clés : Art préhistorique, diffraction X (XRD), fluorescence X (XRF), in situ, oxyde de manganèse, pigments préhistoriques, système portable.

  • Beyneix, Alain.0 « Le Monde Des Morts Au Néolithique En Aquitaine : Essai De Synthèse ». L'Anthropologie 116(2): 222-233.
    Résumé : Résumé Cet article cherche à définir les principales caractéristiques des sépultures et l’évolution des comportements funéraires au Néolithique, entre environ 5500 et 2300/2200 avant J.-C., dans l’actuelle région d’Aquitaine. Pour l’heure, nous ne connaissons aucune sépulture qui daterait de la phase ancienne de la période. Ce n’est qu’à partir du Néolithique moyen vers 4500 avant J.-C. qu’apparaissent les premières tombes mégalithiques, des dolmens à couloir de type angoumoisin et des coffres sous-tumulus, ainsi que des sépultures en cavités naturelles. Le Néolithique récent puis le Néolithique final, entre 3700 et 2300/2200 avant J.-C., correspondent à la grande époque des architectures funéraires mégalithiques. Des dolmens simples caussenards furent édifiés en Dordogne et dans l’Entre-deux-Mers en Gironde, des allées d’Aquitaine et des allées girondines se développèrent au cœur des terres aquitaines tandis que les Pyrénées occidentales virent se multiplier les dolmens simples. En revanche, les grottes et abris sous roches furent semble-t-il beaucoup moins prisés par les populations de la fin des temps néolithiques pour y déposer leurs défunts. This paper proposes to define the main characteristics of the burials and the evolution of funeral behaviours during the Neolithic times, between about 5500 and 2300/2200 B.C., in the present territory of Aquitaine. For the moment, no burial was found for early Neolithic. During the middle Neolithic, about 4500 B.C., appear the first megalithic graves, passage graves (Angoumoisin type) and barrow cists, as well as burial caves. Late Neolithic, between 3700 and 2300/2200 B.C. is the great period of megalithic graves. Single quadrangular dolmen (Caussenard type) were built in Dordogne and in the Entre-deux-Mers in Gironde, gallery graves, the “allées d’Aquitaine” as to the “allées girondines” extended in the centre of the Aquitaine country while in the western Pyrénées the single quadrangular dolmen increased. In return, caves and rock shelter were, it seems to me, less prized by the people during the end of Neolithic times to leave the dead.
    Mots-clés : Burial caves, Burials, Comportements funéraires, Funeral behaviours, Grottes sépulcrales, Megalithic graves, Néolithique, Neolithic, Sépultures, South-West of France, Sud-ouest de la France, Tombes mégalithiques.

  • Beyneix, Alain, Briois, François, et Servelle, Christian.0 « La Hache De Laplume (Lot-Et-Garonne) : Un Outil En Pierre Polie Parmi Les Plus Importants Du Néolithique Du Midi De La France ». L'Anthropologie 116(2): 217-221.
    Résumé : Résumé Découverte anciennement et hors de tout contexte archéologique sur la commune de Laplume (Lot-et-Garonne), cette hache en roche pyrénéenne de part ses grandes dimensions et surtout son poids exceptionnel de 1510,8 g compte parmi les outils polis les plus grands du Néolithique du Midi de la France. This polished axe has been discovered formerly at Laplume (Lot-et-Garonne) but the definite location and the archaeological context are unknown. With regard to its large dimensions and particularly its exceptional weight (1510.8 g), this axe is one of the most important polished tools for the Neolithic period in Southern France.
    Mots-clés : Hache polie, Midi de la France, Néolithique, Neolithic, Outillage lithique, Polished axe, Southern France, Stone tools.

  • Brasseur, Boris.0 « Pedo-Sedimentary Dynamics Of Sangiran Dome Hominid Bearing Layers (L/m Pleistocene, Java Central, Indonesia): A Paleopedological Approach Of ‘Pithecanthropus’ (Javanese Homo Erectus) Environments ». Quaternary International 279–280: 65.

  • Caparrós, Miguel, Barroso Ruíz, Cecilio, Moigne, Anne Marie, et Monclova Bohorquez, Antonio.0 « Did Neanderthals And Carnivores Compete For Animal Nutritional Resources In The Surroundings Of The Cave Of Zafarraya? ». Journal of Taphonomy 10(3-4): 395-415.

  • Chacón, María Gema, Vaquero, Manuel, et Carbonell, Eudald.0 « The Neanderthal Home: Spatial And Social Behaviours ». Quaternary International 247: 1-9.

  • Cordier, Stéphane, Harmand, Dominique, Lauer, Tobias, Voinchet, Pierre, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, et Frechen, Manfred.0 « Geochronological Reconstruction Of The Pleistocene Evolution Of The Sarre Valley (France And Germany) Using Osl And Esr Dating Techniques ». Geomorphology 165–166: 91-106.
    Résumé : This paper focuses upon the Pleistocene terraces of the Sarre River, a right bank tributary of the Moselle River (NE France and SW Germany) flowing through the Vosges Massif, the eastern Paris Basin and the Rhenish Massif. Recent research has allowed the recognition of 12 well preserved alluvial terraces (Sa1 youngest to Sa12 oldest) between the present floodplain Sa0 and + 120 m relative height. The youngest terraces were dated using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL). A first chronological framework was also provided for older terraces by Electron-Spin-Resonance (ESR) dating. The ages range between the end of the Early Pleistocene and the last glacial–interglacial cycle of the Late Pleistocene (ca. 1.1 Ma to 50 ka). Age ranges are consistent with the terrace elevation and stratigraphy, allowing correlation of the youngest terraces with established global climate cycles and with the younger terraces in the Moselle valley. In particular, an erosional period was recognised at the end of the Saalian, (end of MIS 6) suggesting that the terrace incision occurred at the cold-to-warm transition. This result contrasts with those obtained for the Moselle and Meurthe Rivers, where previous studies suggest that major incision took place at the beginning of the cold periods. The differences are attributed to a variable fluvial response to climate change which could relate to the presence or absence of glaciers in the upper catchment.
    Mots-clés : ESR, Fluvial terraces, Moselle River, OSL, Pleistocene, Sarre River.

  • Dabkowski, Julie, Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole, Antoine, Pierre, Andrews, Julian, Marca-Bell, Alina, et Robert, Vincent.0 « Climatic Variations In Mis 11 Recorded By Stable Isotopes And Trace Elements In A French Tufa (La Celle, Seine Valley) ». Journal of Quaternary Science 27(8): 790–799.
    Résumé : Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 palaeoclimate has so far been documented in marine and ice sheet isotopic records. However, excepting some lacustrine pollen records, very little is known about palaeoclimatic conditions in continental areas. This study uses geochemical records in calcareous tufa deposits from rivers as a basis for reconstructing temperate palaeoclimatic conditions. Tufa deposits are now proven to record high-quality palaeoclimatic information in recent to Holocene deposits. Work on older interglacial tufas is just starting and in this paper we present the first comprehensive results from a MIS 11 tufa. The tufa comes from the Seine Valley (La Celle, northern France). Geochemical data in the tufa calcite are interpreted to record primarily air temperature (δ18O) and humidity (δ13C and Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca). The combined data identify a warm and wet climatic optimum followed by two temperature decreases associated with oscillations in humidity. These marked climatic variations recorded through the La Celle profile are strongly coherent with the palaeoenvironmental reconstructions from malacological data. The abrupt climatic and environmental events recorded could be related to short-term degradation of vegetation cover in Europe, which is itself controlled by global palaeoclimatic events. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Mots-clés : calcareous tufa, MIS 11, Palaeoclimate, stable isotopes, trace elements.

  • Daujeard, Camille, Fernandes, Paul, Guadelli, Jean-Luc, Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Santagata, Carmen, et Raynal, Jean-Paul.0 « Neanderthal Subsistence Strategies In Southeastern France Between The Plains Of The Rhone Valley And The Mid-Mountains Of The Massif Central (Mis 7 To Mis 3) ». Quaternary International 252: 32-47.
    Résumé : New investigations of finds from middle Rhone Valley sites (Le Figuier, Abri du Maras, Baume Flandin and Ranc Pointu 2) and from the mountainous southeastern area of the Massif Central (Sainte-Anne I, especially the unpublished data for unit J2) allowed assembly of new data on both chronological and environmental grounds for human occupation and consequently on Neanderthal subsistence strategies in this area. The southeastern Massif Central region makes it possible to examine Neanderthal occupation modes in an area linking medium altitude territories with the plains of the Rhone River corridor. This work aims to determine site occupation events and territory management strategies for these two environments. The variability of the site occupation types in the middle Rhone Valley supports the hypothesis of human groups who anticipated their land use strategies, and suggests a particular type of circulating model for these areas. The evidence suggests that the human presence consists of brief stopping-places, short-term regular camps (interspersed with some occupations by carnivores), or long-term residential camps. The types of occupation observed in the two mountain sites of Velay (Sainte-Anne I cave and Baume-Vallée rock-shelter) a priori do not indicate occupations specific to an environment at this altitude. On the contrary, they suggest the existence of short-term regular camps, probably seasonally utilised and exploited when good seasons favoured the expansion of accessible territories. The sites in the plains of the Rhone Valley corridor indicate a greater variety of occupation types, but still within the framework of strong seasonal mobility.

  • Daver, Guillaume, Berillon, Gilles, et Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique.0 « Carpal Kinematics In Quadrupedal Monkeys: Towards A Better Understanding Of Wrist Morphology And Function ». Journal of Anatomy 220(1): 42–56.
    Résumé : The purpose of this study is to provide new data on carpal kinematics in primates in order to deepen our understanding of the relationships between wrist morphology and function. To that end, we provide preliminary data on carpal kinematics in seven species of quadrupedal monkeys that have not been previously investigated in this regard (cercopithecoids, n = 4; ceboids, n = 3). We radiographed wrists from cadavers at their maximum radial and ulnar deviations, as well as at maximum flexion and extension. We took angular measurements to quantify the contribution of the mobility of the two main wrist joints (antebrachiocarpal and midcarpal) with respect to total wrist mobility. We also recorded qualitative observations. Our quantitative results show few clear differences among quadrupedal monkeys for radioulnar deviation and flexion–extension: all the primates studied exhibit a greater midcarpal mobility (approximately 54–83% of the total range of motion) than antebrachiocarpal mobility; however, we identified two patterns of carpal kinematics that show the functional impact of previously recognised morphological variations in quadrupedal monkeys. Firstly, qualitative results show that the partition that divides the proximal joint of the wrist in ceboids results in less mobility and more stability of the ulnar part of the wrist than is seen in cercopithecoids. Secondly, we show that the olive baboon specimen (Papio anubis) is characterised by limited antebrachiocarpal mobility for extension; this effect is likely the result of a radial process that projects on the scaphoid notch, as well as an intraarticular meniscus. Because of these close relationships between carpal kinematics and morphology in quadrupedal monkeys, we hypothesise that, to some extent, these functional tendencies are related to their locomotor hand postures.
    Mots-clés : comparative anatomy, functional morphology, hand postures, locomotion, radiography, wrist joints.

  • Delagnes, Anne, Tribolo, Chantal, Bertran, Pascal, Brenet, Michel, Crassard, Rémy, Jaubert, Jacques, Khalidi, Lamya, Mercier, Norbert, Nomade, Sébastien, Peigné, Stéphane, Sitzia, Luca, Tournepiche, Jean-François, Al-Halibi, Mohammad, Al-Mosabi, Ahmad, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « Inland Human Settlement In Southern Arabia 55,000 Years Ago. New Evidence From The Wadi Surdud Middle Paleolithic Site Complex, Western Yemen ». Journal of Human Evolution 63(3): 452-474.
    Résumé : The recovery at Shi’bat Dihya 1 (SD1) of a dense Middle Paleolithic human occupation dated to 55 ka BP sheds new light on the role of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of the alleged expansion of modern humans out of Africa. SD1 is part of a complex of Middle Paleolithic sites cut by the Wadi Surdud and interstratified within an alluvial sedimentary basin in the foothills that connect the Yemeni highlands with the Tihama coastal plain. A number of environmental proxies indicate arid conditions throughout a sequence that extends between 63 and 42 ka BP. The lithic industry is geared toward the production of a variety of end products: blades, pointed blades, pointed flakes and Levallois-like flakes with long unmodified cutting edges, made from locally available rhyolite. The occasional exploitation of other local raw materials, that fulfill distinct complementary needs, highlights the multi-functional nature of the occupation. The slightly younger Shi’bat Dihya 2 (SD2) site is characterized by a less elaborate production of flakes, together with some elements (blades and pointed flakes) similar to those found at SD1, and may indicate a cultural continuity between the two sites. The technological behaviors of the SD1 toolmakers present similarities with those documented from a number of nearly contemporaneous assemblages from southern Arabia, the Levant, the Horn of Africa and North Africa. However, they do not directly conform to any of the techno-complexes typical of the late Middle Paleolithic or late Middle Stone Age from these regions. This period would have witnessed the development of local Middle Paleolithic traditions in the Arabian Peninsula, which suggests more complex settlement dynamics and possible population interactions than commonly inferred by the current models of modern human expansion out of Africa.
    Mots-clés : Arabian Peninsula, Lithic technology, Middle Paleolithic, OSL dating, Settlement dynamics, Wadi Surdud site complex, Yemen.

  • Demay, Laëtitia, Péan, Stéphane, et Patou-Mathis, Marylène.0 « Mammoths Used As Food And Building Resources By Neanderthals: Zooarchaeological Study Applied To Layer 4, Molodova I (Ukraine) ». Quaternary International 276–277: 212-226.
    Résumé : Considering Neanderthal subsistence, the use of mammoth resources has been particularly discussed. Apart from procurement for food, the use of mammoth bones as building material has been proposed. The hypothesis was based on the discovery made in Molodova I, Ukraine (Dniester valley). In this large multistratified open-air site, a rich Mousterian layer was excavated. Dated to the Inter-Pleniglacial (MIS 3), it has yielded 40 000 lithic remains associated with ca. 3000 mammal bones, mostly from mammoth. Several areas have been excavated: a pit filled with bones, different areas of activities (butchering, tool production), twenty-five hearths and a circular accumulation made of mammoth bones, described as a dwelling structure set up by Neanderthals. Attested dwelling structures made of mammoth bones are known in Upper Paleolithic sites, from Ukraine and Russia, attributed to the Epigravettian tradition. This paper presents a zooarchaeological study of large mammal remains from Molodova I layer 4, to understand the modalities of acquisition and utilization of mammoth resources for food and technical purposes, especially to test the hypothesis of using bones as building elements. The number of mammoths is estimated to at least fifteen individuals of all age classes and both sexes, which died during several episodes, near or on the site. The taphonomic modifications due to weathering, water percolation and plant roots indicate the location of bones in holes, such as the pit and the basement of the circular accumulation. Secondary actions of carnivores, especially of hyaenid type, are rare on bones, showing that the assemblage was not accumulated by these predators. The anatomical preservation, the age and sex features and the taphonomic data indicate several modalities of mammoth acquisition by hunting, scavenging and collecting. Based on anthropogenic marks, mammoth meat has been eaten. The presence of series of striations and ochre on mammoth bones are associated with a technical or symbolic use. Furthermore, mammoth bones have been deliberately selected (long and flat bones, tusks, connected vertebrae) and circularly arranged. This mammoth bone structure could be described as the basement of a wooden cover or as a wind-screen. The inner presence of fifteen hearths, lithic artifacts and waste of mammal butchery and cooking is characteristic of a domestic area, which was probably the centre of a residential camp recurrently settled. It appears that Neanderthals were the oldest known humans who used mammoth bones to build a dwelling structure.

  • Duval, Mathieu, Falguères, Christophe, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Grün, Rainer, Shao, Qingfeng, Aubert, Maxime, Dolo, Jean-Michel, Agustí, Jordi, Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido, Palmqvist, Paul, et Toro-Moyano, Isidro.0 « On The Limits Of Using Combined U-Series/esr Method To Date Fossil Teeth From Two Early Pleistocene Archaeological Sites Of The Orce Area (Guadix-Baza Basin, Spain) ». Quaternary Research 77(3): 482-491.
    Résumé : The combined U-series/electron spin resonance (ESR) dating method was applied to nine teeth from two Early Pleistocene archaeological sites located in the Orce area (Guadix-Baza Basin, Southern Spain): Fuente Nueva-3 (FN-3) and Barranco León (BL). The combination of biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy places both sites between the Olduvai and Jaramillo subchrons (1.78–1.07 Ma). Our results highlight the difficulty of dating such old sites and point out the limits of the combined U-series/ESR dating method based on the US model. We identified several sources of uncertainties that may lead to inaccurate age estimates. Seven samples could not be dated because the dental tissues had (230Th/234U) activity ratios higher than equilibrium, indicating that uranium had probably leached from these tissues. It was however possible to calculate numerical estimates for two of the teeth, both from FN-3. One yielded a Middle Pleistocene age that seems to be strongly underestimated; the other provided an age of 1.19 ± 0.21 Ma, in agreement with data obtained from independent methods. The latter result gives encouragement that there are samples that can be used for routine dating of old sites.
    Mots-clés : Barranco León, Combined U-series/ESR dating method, Early Pleistocene, Fossil teeth, Fuente Nueva-3, Orce.

  • Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique, Widianto, Harry, Détroit, Florent, et Sémah, François.0 « Comparative Morphological And Morphometric Description Of The Hominin Calvaria From Bukuran (Sangiran, Central Java, Indonesia) ». Journal of Human Evolution 63(5): 637-652.
    Résumé : We describe the hominin skull (called here “Bukuran”) discovered in the lower Kabuh (or “Bapang”) series near Sendangbusik, from the Bukuran area in the Sangiran dome. The fossil, heavily mineralized, consists of the parieto-occipital and the left temporal, and the frontal bones. When combined, those two cranial parts represent a rather complete and well-preserved calvaria. Its stratigraphic position was established after the discovery. A detailed description is presented of the morphological and metric features of the Bukuran calvaria, and comparisons are made with Asian Homo erectus from Indonesia and China. The estimated cranial capacity of Bukuran, the general shape of its cranial vault, its ectocranial structures, and its morphological and metrical characters are in the range of Asian Homo erectus, and show clear affinities with other Indonesian members of the species. We discuss the evolutionary status of the Bukuran calvaria and its implication for hominin history on Java.
    Mots-clés : Cranial remains, Homo erectus, Kabuh (Bapang) series, Sangiran Dome.

  • Guérin, Guillaume, Discamps, Emmanuel, Lahaye, Christelle, Mercier, Norbert, Guibert, Pierre, Turq, Alain, Dibble, Harold L., McPherron, Shannon P., Sandgathe, Dennis, Goldberg, Paul, Jain, Mayank, Thomsen, Kristina, Patou-Mathis, Marylène, Castel, Jean-Christophe, et Soulier, Marie-Cécile.0 « Multi-Method (Tl And Osl), Multi-Material (Quartz And Flint) Dating Of The Mousterian Site Of Roc De Marsal (Dordogne, France): Correlating Neanderthal Occupations With The Climatic Variability Of Mis 5–3 ». Journal of Archaeological Science 39(10): 3071-3084.
    Résumé : Roc de Marsal has yielded numerous remains of Mousterian occupations, including lithics, fauna and combustion features. It was made famous by the discovery of the skeleton of a Neanderthal child. Given the need to date the sequence, TL and OSL were applied on heated flints and quartz, and OSL on unheated quartz. Chronological results combined with palaeoenvironmental data – faunal remains and micromorphological features in the sediments from the cave, pollen proxies and faunal remains from the region – allowed us to place climate variations in southwest France on a numerical time scale. Denticulate Mousterian occupations were dated to the middle of MIS 4 (65–70 ka) and Quina layers either to the very end of MIS 4 or to MIS 3. Interestingly, a faunal pattern showing a mix of red deer, roe deer and reindeer was found to have occurred during MIS 4, which was shown to be consistent with data from other similar sites in southwest France.
    Mots-clés : Climate variability, Middle Palaeolithic, OSL, Palaeoenvironments, TL.

  • Han, Fei, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Boëda, Éric, Hou, Yamei, Huang, Wanbo, Falguères, Christophe, Rasse, Michel, Wei, Guangbiao, Garcia, Tristan, Shao, Qingfeng, et Yin, Gongming.0 « Preliminary Results Of Combined Esr/u-Series Dating Of Fossil Teeth From Longgupo Cave, China ». Quaternary Geochronology 10: 436-442.
    Résumé : Longgupo Cave site, located in Wushan County, Chongqing, China has attracted continuous attention since its discovery of hominid remains in association with late Pliocene-early Pleistocene fauna and numerous lithic artefacts. In 2003–2006, new excavation was carried out on this site, allowing the description of a detailed stratigraphy of the highly complex cave infillings and the sampling of teeth for combined ESR/U-series analyses. Here we report preliminary dating results of seven herbivorous fossil teeth from different archaeological layers of the lowest geological unit (C III). Uranium-series analyses indicate that no obvious uranium leaching has occurred and all the teeth (except one) underwent a very recent uranium uptake history. The obtained US-ESR results show that the age of six teeth are basically consistent, between ∼1.4 and 1.8 Ma. At the same time, we observed an inverse correlation of two samples with the stratigraphical sequence. This could be caused by the distinct uranium uptake history of one sample, high uranium content in the enamel for another or bad estimation of external dose rate. Due to the complexity of the stratigraphic sequence, supplementary in situ gamma dose rate measurement should be performed for all the samples during the following excavations in order to confirm this preliminary ESR/U-series chronology.
    Mots-clés : China, Early Pleistocene, ESR/U-series method, Fossil teeth, Longgupo site.

  • Iakovleva, L., Djindjian, F., Maschenko, E.N., Konik, S., et Moigne, A.-M.0 « The Late Upper Palaeolithic Site Of Gontsy (Ukraine): A Reference For The Reconstruction Of The Hunter–Gatherer System Based On A Mammoth Economy ». Quaternary International 255: 86-93.
    Résumé : The long-term excavations of the LUP settlement of Gontsy (Ukraine), with its mammoth bone huts and associated with a mammoth bone bed, has allowed reconstruction of all the pieces of the puzzle of this type of settlement and the major role of the economy of mammoth in the Mezinian peopling of the middle and upper Dnepr basin (Ukraine and Russia). The settlements generally share the same geomorphology, a promontory cut by ravines on the slope of a river valley. The dwelling area is organized around mammoth bone huts, with numerous pits around each hut, large working areas with hearths, dumping areas, a butchering area for small and medium mammals, and the existence of a mammoth bone bed, which has been largely exploited during the occupation of the settlement. The landscape analysis, using the information from the mapping, the functions and the seasonality of the settlements, characterizes a particular system based on the economy of mammoth, limited to a short period between 15 000 and 14 000 BP at the beginning of the climatic change ending the last ice age. The Mezinian system is compared to similar systems such as the Pavlovian in Moravia and the eastern Gravettian in central and eastern Europe, in which mammoth bone beds have also been found near the settlements and which show the same economy based on the mammoth.

  • Ingicco, T., Moigne, A.-M., et Gommery, D.0 « A Deciduous And Permanent Dental Wear Stage System For Assessing The Age Of Trachypithecus Sp. Specimens (Colobinae, Primates) ». Journal of Archaeological Science 39(2): 421-427.
    Résumé : Although Colobine monkeys are one of the most common prey hunted by Southeast Asian prehistoric humans, no data concerning tooth eruption and wear are available for these species. Dental wear eruption and attrition are used for attributing ages to individual fossils in order to construct mortality curves, and are also useful in reconstructing fossil life histories. Such wear sequences partly exist for Cercopithecines. Although Cercopithecines and Colobines are both bilophodont, they present significant differences in terms of diet, detailed tooth morphologies and occlusion. This paper aims to formulate a guide for the dental eruption and attrition of extant Trachypithecus specimens, the most folivorous of all the Colobines. We also propose to calibrate the eruption and wear stages that we define here with absolute ages available in the literature.
    Mots-clés : Colobines, Tooth attrition, Tooth eruption, Trachypithecus, Wear stages.

  • Jacobs, Zenobia, Roberts, Richard G., Nespoulet, Roland, El Hajraoui, Mohammed Abdeljalil, et Debénath, André.0 « Single-Grain Osl Chronologies For Middle Palaeolithic Deposits At El Mnasra And El Harhoura 2, Morocco: Implications For Late Pleistocene Human–Environment Interactions Along The Atlantic Coast Of Northwest Africa ». Journal of Human Evolution 62(3): 377-394.
    Résumé : Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements were made on individual, sand-sized grains of quartz from Middle Palaeolithic deposits at two cave sites (El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra) on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. We were able to calculate OSL ages for 32 of the 33 samples collected from the Middle Palaeolithic deposits, including the earliest and latest Aterian levels at both sites. These ages reveal periods of occupation between about 110 and 95 ka (thousands of years ago), and at ∼75 ka. A late Middle Palaeolithic occupation of El Harhoura 2 is also recorded at ∼55 ka. Our single-grain OSL chronologies largely support previous age estimates from El Mnasra and other sites along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, but are generally more precise, reproducible and stratigraphically more coherent (i.e., fewer age reversals). We compare the single-grain ages for El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra with those obtained from single- and multi-grain OSL dating of Middle Palaeolithic deposits in the nearby sites of Contrebandiers and Dar es-Soltan 1 and 2, and with records of past regional environments preserved in sediment cores collected from off the coast of northwest Africa. A conspicuous feature of the new chronologies is the close correspondence between the three identified episodes of human occupation and periods of wetter climate and expanded grassland habitat. Owing to the precision of the single-grain OSL ages, we are able to discern gaps in occupation during Marine Isotope Stages 5 and 4, which may represent drier periods with reduced vegetation cover. We propose that these climatic conditions can be correlated with events in the North Atlantic Ocean that exert a major control on abrupt, millennial-scale fluctuations between wet and dry periods in northwest and central North Africa.
    Mots-clés : Aterian, Dose distributions, MIS 5, Palaeoenvironments, Sand-sized quartz, Sediment mixing.

  • Janati Idrissi, Nouha, Falgueres, Christophe, Haddad, Mustapha, Nespoulet, Roland, Hajraoui, Mohamed Abdeljalil El, Debenath, André, Bejjit, Lahcen, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Michel, Patrick, Garcia, Tristan, Boudad, Larbi, Hammouti, Kamal El, et Oujaa, Aïcha.0 « Datation Par Esr-U/th Combinées De Dents Fossiles Des Grottes D'el Mnasra Et D'el Harhoura 2, Région De Rabat-Temara. Implications Chronologiques Sur Le Peuplement Du Maroc Atlantique Au Pléistocène Supérieur Et Son Environnement ». Quaternaire 23(1): 25-35.
    Mots-clés : Actual, Actuel, Africa, Africa del norte, Afrique, Afrique du Nord, Asentamiento, caves, Cénozoïque, Cenozoic, Cenozoico, combined ESR-U/Th dating, Cuaternario, Cuaternario sup, Datation, dating, Dent, Diente, El Harhoura 2, El Mnasra, electron paramagnetic resonance, Excavación, Excavation, excavations, Fanerozoico, Fechado, Fossil teeth, Grotte, Gruta, Holocène, Holocene, Holoceno, Maroc, Marruecos, modern, Morocco, Néolithique, Neolítico, Neolithic, North Africa, Paléolithique, Paléolithique sup, Paleolítico, Paleolithic, Phanérozoïque, Phanerozoic, Pléistocène, Pléistocène sup, Pleistocene, Quaternaire, Quaternaire sup, Quaternary, Résonance paramagnétique électronique, settlement, Tassement, teeth, Th-U, Th/U, upper Paleolithic, upper Pleistocene, upper Quaternary.

  • Julien, Marie-Anne, Bocherens, Hervé, Burke, Ariane, Drucker, Dorothée G., Patou-Mathis, Marylène, Krotova, Oleksandra, et Péan, Stéphane.0 « Were European Steppe Bison Migratory? 18O, 13C And Sr Intra-Tooth Isotopic Variations Applied To A Palaeoethological Reconstruction ». Quaternary International 271: 106-119.
    Résumé : This paper focuses on the palaeoethological study of steppe bison (Bison priscus), a Eurasiatic species that disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene. In the Southern steppe of Eastern Europe, this large bovid seems to have been a keystone species during the late Pleistocene, where it is omnipresent in archaeozoological assemblages and can constitute spectacular bone accumulations. Based on the principles of actualism, which assume that modern animal biology and their behavioural adaptations can be applied to the past, different models of bison palaeoethological reconstructions have been proposed to explain this important occurrence of bison in East European archaeological records. Considering the variability of extant bison behaviour, it appeared necessary to undertake a direct reconstruction of the behaviour of fossil bison, to assess how they were targeted. In order to reconstruct steppe bison ecology and habits stable isotope analyses were conducted of tooth enamel carbonate of 25 individuals from Amvrosievka, a Late Pleistocene (∼18,500 BP) archaeological site complex from Eastern Ukraine. Intra- and inter-individual variations in the stable oxygen, carbon and strontium isotope composition of tooth enamel were analysed to reconstruct the feeding behaviour and seasonal movements of steppe bison. This is the first large scale multi-proxy study of its kind for a Pleistocene cohort. The results show that bison δ13C values are wholly consistent with an exclusively C3 plant diet, typical of steppe/grassland environments, with a likely consumption of lichen during the cold season. δ18O, δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr values are typical of sedentary bison herds, with limited inter-seasonal movement. These results challenge the previous assumption that Pleistocene bison of the East European steppe were migratory, demonstrating instead that they occupied limited ranges, with no long distance seasonal movement, and that they occasionally incorporated low nutrient foods in their diet. These new palaeobiological results confirm the ecological and behavioural plasticity of bison and have important implications for archaeologists studying hunter-gatherers since human acquisition strategies are directly related to the social, seasonal and spatial behaviour of prey species. This research demonstrates that direct reconstructions of the eco-ethology of fossil prey species are essential, therefore, before attempting to make inferences about the hunting tactics and subsistence strategies developed by Prehistoric hunters.

  • Lahlil, Sophia, Lebon, Matthieu, Beck, Lucile, Rousselière, Hélène, Vignaud, Colette, Reiche, Ina, Menu, Michel, Paillet, Patrick, et Plassard, Frédéric.0 « The First In Situ Micro-Raman Spectroscopic Analysis Of Prehistoric Cave Art Of Rouffignac St-Cernin, France ». Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 43(11): 1637–1643.
    Résumé : The first in situ micro-Raman spectroscopic study of prehistoric drawings found in the cave of Rouffignac-Saint-Cernin (Dordogne, France) was carried out. Rouffignac cave art, assigned to the upper Magdalenian Paleolithic period (13500–12000 bp), is constituted of more than 250 drawings and engraving including 158 mammoths. There are about a hundred drawings, all made of black pigments. Until now, destructive chemical analyses performed on one sample, as well as recent micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) in situ analyses have shown that the drawings contain manganese oxides. Because no carbon has yet been found, no direct dating of the drawings could be performed. This new study of the Rouffignac cave using non-destructive in situ micro-analyses aims at confirming or not the absence of carbon-based drawings and at understanding the apparent homogeneity of the parietal representations by the identification of the crystalline phases constituting the black pigments. The adaptability of portable equipment as well as the feasibility of in situ micro-Raman analyses in a cave environment was tested. The results obtained are compared with in situ XRF, and X-ray diffraction microanalysis is performed at the same time in the cave. We demonstrate that a portable Raman instrument is very useful to analyze non-destructively drawings in the following difficult conditions: high humidity, various wall geometries, and small amounts of material studied. These results show that the black manganese oxides romanechite and pyrolusite were used as pigments by prehistorical artists. Carbon and carotenoids have been found locally. Differences between the various figures are highlighted and hypotheses about the drawings production are proposed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Mots-clés : manganese oxides, Paleolithic, portable micro-Raman, romanechite, Rouffignac.

  • Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier, Nomade, Sébastien, Poupeau, Gérard, Guillou, Hervé, Tushabramishvili, Nikolos, Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Pleurdeau, David, Agapishvili, Tamar, Voinchet, Pierre, Mgeladze, Ana, et Lordkipanidze, David.0 « Multiple Origins Of Bondi Cave And Ortvale Klde (Nw Georgia) Obsidians And Human Mobility In Transcaucasia During The Middle And Upper Palaeolithic ». Journal of Archaeological Science 39(5): 1317-1330.
    Résumé : Using PIXE four types of elemental compositions were found among obsidian artefacts from the Bondi Cave and Ortvale Klde, Middle to Upper Palaeolithic sites in NW Georgia. One of those types corresponds to obsidians from the Chikiani source, whose compositions were determined with a very good agreement by PIXE and ICP-AES/MS. The composition of Chikiani obsidians is remarkably constant despite K–Ar and 39Ar/40Ar extrusion ages from ca 2.4 and 2.8 Ma. The compositions of two other groups of obsidian artefacts are similar to source materials from eastern Anatolia and Armenia, in particular Ikisdere, Sarikamis, Gutansar, and Hatis. Obsidian is only a minority component in the lithic assemblages at the Bondi Cave and Ortvale Klde. Both Neanderthal and Modern Human populations used obsidian in particular from Chikiani. Considering that the shortest walking distance to this nearest source is at minimum of about 180 km, and to other potential sources of more than 350 km it is suggested that this material reached these two sites mostly, if not exclusively, by a series of ‘down the line’ exchanges.
    Mots-clés : Bondi Cave, Chikiani obsidians, Obsidian provenance, Ortvale Klde, Palaeolithic.

  • Lebon, Matthieu, Müller, Katharina, Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic, Paris, Céline, et Reiche, Ina. 2012. « Application Des Micro-Spectrométries Infrarouge Et Raman À L'étude Des Processus Diagénétiques Altérant Les Ossements Paléolithiques ». ArchéoSciences n° 35(1): 179-190.

  • Marquer, L., Lebreton, V., Otto, T., Valladas, H., Haesaerts, P., Messager, E., Nuzhnyi, D., et Péan, S.0 « Charcoal Scarcity In Epigravettian Settlements With Mammoth Bone Dwellings: The Taphonomic Evidence From Mezhyrich (Ukraine) ». Journal of Archaeological Science 39(1): 109-120.
    Résumé : Fuel management during the Paleolithic periods is an important issue to understand past human subsistence. Numerous Palaeolithic sites relate an abundance of burnt bones in hearths and an absence or scarcity of wood charcoals, which leads studies to focus on burnt bone remains and the use of bones in hearths. Few works take into account the micro-residues of wood charcoals which can still be present in hearth areas and excavated sediments. We studied the Epigravettian site with mammoth bone dwellings of Mezhyrich (Ukraine) previously characterized by its high content of burnt bones and an “absence” of wood charcoal during the so-called mammoth steppe. The presence or absence and proportions of both wood charcoals and burnt bones were quantified in macro-, meso- and microscale sediment size fractions by an image analysis method. Our results show that excavations during field-works at Mezhyrich give only a partial image of the original anthracological record and that most charcoal materials are lost with standard archaeological and anthracological approaches. The scarcity of charcoals in this site was possibly due to an important mass reduction accentuated by the addition of bones in hearths. By applying our protocol we recovered a significant amount of wood charcoals which provides the first 14C dates from charcoals at Mezhyrich. Numerous charcoals are identified contributing subsequent information about vegetation, environment and burning practices. They indicate, by comparison with pollen data already collected, the presence of forest patches in a mammoth steppe landscape, which might have influenced the collecting behavior of Epigravettian populations.
    Mots-clés : Burnt bones, Charcoal, Combustion residues, Taphonomy, Ukraine, Upper Palaeolithic.

  • McPherron, Shannon Patrick, Dibble, Harold Lewis, Chiotti, Laurent, Chase, Philip, Debénath, André, et Farrand, William R.0 « Processus De Formation Des Sites Et Concept Du Tayacien : L’Exemple De Fontéchevade (Charente, France) ». L'Anthropologie 116(3): 321-347.
    Résumé : Résumé Le Tayacien fut reconnu pour la première fois par le préhistorien français D. Peyrony à La Micoque en Dordogne. Peu après, les fouilles de la grotte de Fontéchevade en Charente, à 80 km au nord-est, fournirent à G. Henri-Martin un large assemblage lithique de ce type qui fut étudié en détail. C’est pour cette raison que Fontéchevade devint le site de référence du Tayacien. Les fouilles récentes effectuées par les auteurs de cet article ont montré qu’il existait différents arguments suggérant que les assemblages lithiques de la grotte de Fontéchevade ont une origine probablement plus naturelle qu’anthropique. Cet article présente ces résultats dans le contexte historique du Tayacien et de la grotte de Fontéchevade elle-même. The Tayacian was first recognized early in the 20th century by the French archaeologist Denis Peyrony at the site of La Micoque, located in the Department of the Dordogne in SW France. Not long afterwards, later excavations at another site 80 km to the northwest, in the Charente, yielded an even larger assemblage of this type, which was more fully documented by the excavator. It was for this reason that this latter site, Fontéchevade, ultimately become the reference site for the Tayacian. Based on recent excavations at this site by the present authors, however, there are multiple lines of evidence that, taken together, strongly suggest that assemblage present in this cave is largely of natural, rather than anthropogenic, origin. This paper presents these results in the context of the history of the Tayacian and the cave of Fontéchevade itself.
    Mots-clés : Fontéchevade, Processus de formation des sites, Site formation processes, Taphonomie, Taphonomy, Tayacian, Tayacien.

  • Mensan, Romain, Bourrillon, Raphaëlle, Cretin, Catherine, White, Randall, Gardère, Philippe, Chiotti, Laurent, Sisk, Matthew, Clark, Amy, Higham, Thomas, et Tartar, Élise.0 « Une Nouvelle Découverte D’Art Pariétal Aurignacien In Situ À L’Abri Castanet (Dordogne, France) : Contexte Et Datation ». PALEO. Revue d'archéologie préhistorique (23): 171-188.
    Résumé : En 2007, un fragment de voûte ornée a été découvert, sur le site de l’abri Castanet (commune de Sergeac, Dordogne) lors des opérations archéologiques ce qui n’était plus arrivé depuis 1912 (fouilles de M. Castanet pour L. Didon). La face profondément gravée et peinte de ce bloc d’effondrement, pesant plus d’une tonne, était en contact direct avec la couche archéologique aurignacienne. Une série de six datations par 14C AMS (par filtration moléculaire), réalisée sur des vestiges osseux de faune en contact avec le sommet du niveau d’occupation, donne des résultats cohérents dont la moyenne est de 32 400 BP. Parmi les tracés visibles, sur la surface du bloc, la figure la plus évidente est celle d’une vulve. Cette thématique a été mise en évidence de façon récurrente au cours des fouilles du XXe siècle sur le site de Castanet et sur celui voisin de Blanchard. La découverte de ce bloc et sa datation permettent de recadrer chronologiquement ceux retrouvés à quelques mètres au cours des fouilles anciennes et d’aborder ces manifestations du vallon de Castel-Merle sous un nouvel angle.
    Mots-clés : Abri Castanet, Aurignacien, bloc gravé, contexte, Datation.

  • Moncel, M.-H., Chiotti, L., Gaillard, C., Onoratini, G., et Pleurdeau, D.0 « Non-Utilitarian Lithic Objects From The European Paleolithic ». Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia 40(1): 24-40.
    Résumé : We present here previously unpublished non-utilitarian Paleolithic stone objects, within the contextual framework of similar objects from European sites. The occurrence of non-utilitarian lithic objects, often modified, in Middle Stone Age or Upper Paleolithic sites is now widely accepted as evidence of symbolic behavior associated with the appearance of Homo sapiens. However the occurrence of non-utilitarian and unusual objects in far earlier sites raises questions about their significance. Our purpose is not to discuss their meaning, which is unknown to us, but to approach their diversity and to trace their evolution. From the earliest beginnings of mankind, various objects have been found in the occupation sites that have no apparent functional link with any technical activity or food procurement. This type of object is more obvious from the Acheulian times onwards and then becomes common in the Late Pleistocene. The inventory and classification according to the object characteristics (raw material, color, shape, degree of transformation, etc.) and the context of the sites (chronology, stratigraphy, paleoenvironment) help in identifying specific hominin behavior. Perhaps they were intended to convey symbolic expression, quite vague in any case for the earliest periods, but at least their occurrence in the sites suggests some non-utilitarian concerns among the people who made them.
    Mots-clés : Europe, Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic, Non-utilitarian lithic objects, upper Paleolithic.

  • Moncel, M.-H., Puaud, S., Daujeard, C., Lartigot-Campin, A.-S., Millet, J.-J., Theodoropoulou, A., Cregut-Bonnoure, E., Gely, B., Vercoutere, C., Desclaux, E., Roger, T., et Bourges, F.0 « La Grotte Du Figuier (Saint-Martin-D'ardèche): Bilan Des Travaux Récents Sur Un Site Du Paléolithique Moyen Et Supérieur De La Moyenne Vallée Du Rhône (Sud-Est De La France) ». Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française 109(1): 35-67.
    Mots-clés : Archaeometry, Archaeozoology, Archéométrie, Archéozoologie, Ardèche, Ardeche, Cave, Europe, Fauna, Faune, France, Gravettian, Gravettien, Grotte, Grotte du Figuier, Human palaeontology, Human remain, Industrie lithique, Lithic industry, Middle Palaeolithic, Paléoenvironnement, Paléolithique moyen, Paléolithique supérieur, Paléontologie humaine, Paleoenvironment, Palynologie, Palynology, Reste humain, Saint-Martin-d'Ardèche, Sédimentologie, Sedimentology, Stratigraphie, Stratigraphy, Upper Palaeolithic.

  • Moncel, Marie-hélène, et Daujeard, Camille.0 « The Variability Of The Middle Palaeolithic On The Right Bank Of The Middle Rhône Valley (Southeast France): Technical Traditions Or Functional Choices? ». Quaternary International 247: 103-124.
    Résumé : The variability of technical choices in the Rhône Valley (southeast France) is discussed in relation to the age, environmental conditions, site localisation and site function. New excavations and analyses make it possible to tackle these questions by comparing a wide corpus of sites within limited chronological and geographical frameworks. The technical and typological diversity between MIS 8 and beginning of MIS 3 stem from the existence of different regional and cultural traditions which expressed without link with the seasonal management of a territory. No clear link exists with the age or the climatic context, except for the blade technology which appears at the MIS 5. The hypothesis of technical traditions over time is consistent with what is observed in other European areas.

  • Moreno, Davinia, Falguères, Christophe, Pérez-González, Alfredo, Duval, Mathieu, Voinchet, Pierre, Benito-Calvo, Alfonso, Ortega, Ana Isabel, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Sala, Robert, Carbonell, Eudald, Bermúdez de Castro, Jose María, et Arsuaga, Juan Luis.0 « Esr Chronology Of Alluvial Deposits In The Arlanzón Valley (Atapuerca, Spain): Contemporaneity With Atapuerca Gran Dolina Site ». Quaternary Geochronology 10: 418-423.
    Résumé : The Sierra de Atapuerca (Northern Spain) is characterized by a well-developed karst system where several major archaeological sites have been discovered, attesting an almost continuous hominin occupation of the area during the whole Pleistocene period. Previous geomorphological studies showed a connection between genesis of the karst system and the evolution of the nearby Arlanzón river Valley. However, numerical dating results were missing to refine the chronostratigraphical framework of the Arlanzón valley's fluvial incision. To address this, we applied the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating method to sedimentary optically bleached quartz grains from several fluvial terraces. Nine samples were collected from five of the 14 identified terraces. The ESR age results are stratigraphically coherent and in general agreement with both previous geomorphological observations and available palaeomagnetic data. Consequently, an ESR chronology of the geological evolution of the Arlanzón valley is proposed, which can be then correlated to the sedimentary sequence of the palaeoanthropological site of Atapuerca Gran Dolina. Our results provide important information about the chronology of hominid occupation in this area during Early and Middle Pleistocene.
    Mots-clés : Arlanzón, Bleached quartz, ESR dating, Fluvial sediments, Gran Dolina, Pleistocene.

  • Onoratini, Gérard, Arellano, Almudena, Del Lucchese, Angiolo, Moullé, Pierre Elie, et Serre, Frédéric.0 « The Barma Grande Cave (Grimaldi, Vintimiglia, Italy): From Neandertal, Hunter Of “Elephas Antiquus”, To Sapiens With Ornaments Of Mammoth Ivory ». Quaternary International 255: 141-157.
    Résumé : In 1884 the Barma Grande cave (Grimaldi, Ventimiglia, Italy) entered history following the research of L. Jullien and S. Bonfils who discovered, buried at a depth of 8.4 m, a grave dating from the Upper Paleolithic: “le nouvel homme de Menton”. Subsequently, there were the excavations by the quarry-worker Abbo and his sons, which revealed new burials, including a triple burial which included ornaments crafted from mammoth ivory (discovered in 1892) and remnants of a late “Elephas antiquus” in a Mousterian level. Starting in 1928, the research of A. Mochi, G.A. Blanc and L. Cardini highlighted the site’s stratigraphy: at the base, a Tyrrhenian marine level (MIS 5.5); above, a long continental sequence from the middle Paleolithic including several Mousterian hearths with a fauna composed of large mammals, including the remains of “E. antiquus”. The study of the material of the Bonfils excavations, preserved at the Musée de Préhistoire Régionale of Menton, and of the Abbo excavations preserved at the Balzi Rossi Museum allowed attribution of all of the graves to the early and middle Gravettian level with its “fléchettes“. Moreover, in the highest sequence of the site (MIS 2), mammoth bone remains have been found, as well as ivory funerary ornaments in the triple burial and in the burial known as of "l’homme aux jambes croisées". Although very rare, there are sporadic mammoth remains in some sites in Liguria, but it is primarily in western Gravettian hunter sites in the low valley of the Rhône that this animal is well represented. The sites were on the road for zoned flint (Stampien), a material that was both exotic and prestigious, constituting a funerary offering given by the Gravettians of Liguria. The “E. antiquus” of the lower levels (MIS 3 to 5), present in the Mousterian levels, not only indicates the persistence of this animal until MIS 3 (when it took refuge in Provence and Liguria), but provided material for tools made from elephant ivory by the last Neandertal hunters.

  • Pigeaud, Romain, Berrouet, Florian, Bougard, Estelle, Paitier, Hervé, Pommier, Vincent, et Bonic, Pascal.0 « La Grotte Du Sorcier À Saint-Cirq-Du-Bugue (Dordogne, France) : Nouvelles Lectures. Bilan Des Campagnes 2010 Et 2011 ». PALEO. Revue d'archéologie préhistorique (23): 223-248.
    Résumé : Les progrès réalisés ces dernières années dans les moyens mis à disposition pour étudier l’art pariétal préhistorique, ainsi que l’amer constat d’actes de vandalisme opérés sur certaines gravures de la grotte du Sorcier à Saint-Cirq-du-Bugue (Dordogne), nous ont conduits à reprendre l’étude de ce site majeur de l’art aquitain des populations de chasseurs-collecteurs. Cette nouvelle campagne de relevés, ainsi que l’attachement à comprendre l’exécution des gravures en lien avec les formes de relief souterrain, nous permettent de mieux appréhender l’environnement physique de la grotte au moment de la réalisation des œuvres, tout en nous faisant une idée plus précise des gestes et des techniques employés. Par ailleurs, nous avons pu réaliser lors de la première campagne, menée à l’automne 2010, la couverture topographique complète de la cavité associée à la cotation précise de l’ensemble des représentations, en vue de la réalisation future d’un modèle numérique de terrain.Sur la plupart des gravures réexaminées jusqu’alors, il nous a été possible de préciser certains tracés anciens, d’identifier la position des ajouts modernes et de constater les effets des altéragènes, associés à un support rocheux par endroits particulièrement vulnérable. La figure maîtresse de la grotte, cette représentation humaine ithyphallique, a fait l’objet d’une nouvelle lecture (notamment de la tête), qui a mis en évidence la gravure d’un équidé dont l’une des jambes arrière se superpose pour partie avec le tracé du sexe du « Sorcier ». Une nouvelle gravure figurant un équidé, jusque-là passée inaperçue, a également été découverte. Enfin, au fur et à mesure de nos investigations, il nous est apparu essentiel d’étudier l’ensemble des gravures comme appartenant à une composition se développant autour d’une large fissure présente à la voûte – signe de l’importance des formes naturelles des parois dans l’articulation des représentations –, ainsi que de repenser la constitution de son décor comme la superposition de tracés de différentes époques.
    Mots-clés : anthropomorphe, Art pariétal, gravures, grotte du Sorcier.

  • Pleurdeau, David, Imalwa, Emma, Détroit, Florent, Lesur, Joséphine, Veldman, Anzel, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, et Marais, Eugène.0 « “Of Sheep And Men”: Earliest Direct Evidence Of Caprine Domestication In Southern Africa At Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia) ». PLoS ONE 7(7): e40340.
    Résumé : The origins of herding practices in southern Africa remain controversial. The first appearance of domesticated caprines in the subcontinent is thought to be c. 2000 years BP; however, the origin of this cultural development is still widely debated. Recent genetic analyses support the long-standing hypothesis of herder migration from the north, while other researchers have argued for a cultural diffusion hypothesis where the spread of herding practices took place without necessarily implicating simultaneous and large population movements. Here we document the Later Stone Age (LSA) site of Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia), which contains confirmed caprine remains, from which we infer that domesticates were present in the southern African region as early as the end of the first millennium BC. These remains predate the first evidence of domesticates previously recorded for the subcontinent. This discovery sheds new light on the emergence of herding practices in southern Africa, and also on the possible southward routes used by caprines along the western Atlantic coast.

  • Puymerail, Laurent, Ruff, Christopher B, Bondioli, Luca, Widianto, Harry, Trinkaus, Erik, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « Structural Analysis Of The Kresna 11 Homo Erectus Femoral Shaft (Sangiran, Java) ». Journal of human evolution 63(5): 741-749.
    Résumé : The biomechanical characterization of lower limb long bones in the chrono-ecogeographically diverse species Homo erectus is a fundamental step for assessing evolutionary changes in locomotor mode and body shape that occurred within the genus Homo. However, the samples available for the Early and earlier Middle Pleistocene are small and widely scattered in time and space, thus limiting our understanding of the nature and polarity of morphological trends. Compared to the African fossil record, loading histories based on detailed biomechanical assessment of diaphyseal strength in Indonesian H. erectus lower limb long bones have not been assessed. By using a microtomographic record (μCT), we performed a quantitative analysis of the biomechanical properties and structural organization of Kresna 11, a late Early Pleistocene adult H. erectus femoral shaft from the Sangiran Dome, Central Java. Relative to the modern human condition, Kresna 11 shows the predominant mediolateral cortical thickening (hypertrophy) and the distal displacement of the minimum diaphyseal breadth characteristic of early Homo femora, associated nonetheless with relatively modest cortical thickness within the mid-proximal portion. Synthetic functional imaging of the shaft through the planar representation of its inner structure has revealed distal thickening of the medial cortex, a feature previously unreported in H. erectus. The increase in relative mediolateral bending strength observed in Kresna 11 supports the hypothesis that, rather than simply reflecting differences in patterns of locomotor loading, biomechanical properties of the femoral shaft in archaic Homo are strongly influenced by body shape, i.e., variations in pelvic breadth and femoral neck length.
    Mots-clés : Animals, Biomechanical Phenomena, Femur, Fossils, Hominidae, Humans, Indonesia, Tomography, X-Ray Computed.

  • Puymerail, Laurent, Volpato, Virginie, Debénath, André, Mazurier, Arnaud, Tournepiche, Jean-François, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « A Neanderthal Partial Femoral Diaphysis From The “Grotte De La Tour”, La Chaise-De-Vouthon (Charente, France): Outer Morphology And Endostructural Organization ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 11(8): 581-593.
    Résumé : We describe a human partial femoral shaft discovered during speleological exploration of the “grotte de la Tour”, near the prehistoric site of La Chaise-de-Vouthon (Charente, France). The context of discovery is compatible with a hyena den deposit; the associated mammal assemblage suggests a preliminary chronological attribution to MIS 3. Combined information from its outer morphology, cross-sectional geometric properties, and from the high-resolution 3D imaging and quantitative analysis of its inner structural organization shows that this specimen (CDV-Tour 1) is from an adult Neanderthal individual, more likely a male.
    Mots-clés : Diaphyse fémorale, Femoral shaft, France, Grotte de la Tour, La Chaise-de-Vouthon, Néandertal, Neanderthal.

  • Sémah, Anne-Marie, et Sémah, François.0 « The Rain Forest In Java Through The Quaternary And Its Relationships With Humans (Adaptation, Exploitation And Impact On The Forest) ». Quaternary International 249: 120-128.
    Résumé : Relations between humans and the rain forest in Java Island began during the Lower Pleistocene, but clear evidence for anthropic impact and clearance of the forest does not occur until late in the Holocene, after the rise of the ancient kingdoms on Java at the end of 1st millennium A.D. The history of landscape change in Java over the last 2.5 million years appears highly complex and linked to the repetitive expansion and fragmentation of the rain forest over this time. These processes are now much better understood, thanks to the range of palaeoenvironmental studies undertaken at various altitudes and in locations that show the dynamics of rain forest in response to variations in climatic and regional environmental change. The extent of rain forest throughout the Holocene appears to have been quite sensitive to small perturbations, making it somewhat difficult to discriminate (especially for relatively ancient Holocene forest recessions) between a climatic cause and one of anthropic origin. Clear evidence of intensive human impact on rain forest is observed late, c. 1500 years ago, a pattern that is repeated in other parts of Island Southeast Asia. This paper will focus on the history of the landscape changes in Java during the Quaternary, with special reference to the dynamics of rain forest structure and composition, largely drawn from available pollen analyses. Subsequently, the paleoenvironmental, palaeoanthropological, and archaeological records are considered to investigate the adaptive relationships between human groups and the forest through time.

  • Schmidt, Patrick, Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic, Slodczyk, Aneta, et Fröhlich, François.0 « A Hitherto Unrecognised Band In The Raman Spectra Of Silica Rocks: Influence Of Hydroxylated Si–O Bonds (Silanole) On The Raman Moganite Band In Chalcedony And Flint (Sio2) ». Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 39(6): 455-464.
    Résumé : Chalcedony is a spatial arrangement of hydroxylated nanometre-sized α-quartz (SiO2) crystallites that are often found in association with the silica mineral moganite (SiO2). A supplementary Raman band at 501 cm−1 in the chalcedony spectrum, attributed to moganite, has been used for the evaluation of the quartz/moganite ratio in silica rocks. Its frequency lies at 503 cm−1 in sedimentary chalcedony, representing a 2 cm−1 difference with its position in pure moganite. We present a study of the 503 cm−1 band’s behaviour upon heat treatment, showing its gradual disappearance upon heating to temperatures above 300 °C. Infrared spectroscopic measurements of the silanole (SiOH) content in the samples as a function of annealing temperature show a good correlation between the disappearance of the 503 cm−1 Raman band and the decrease of structural hydroxyl. Thermogravimetric analyses reveal a significant weight loss that can be correlated with the decreasing of this Raman band. X-ray powder diffraction data suggest the moganite content in the samples to remain stable. We propose therefore the existence of a hitherto unknown Raman band at 503 cm−1 in chalcedony, assigned to ‘free’ Si–O vibrations of non-bridging Si–OH that oscillate with a higher natural frequency than bridging Si–O–Si (at 464 cm−1). A similar phenomenon was recently observed in the infrared spectra of chalcedony. The position of this Si–OH-related band is nearly the same as the Raman moganite band and the two bands may interfere. The actually observed Raman band in silica rocks might therefore be a convolution of a silanole and a moganite vibration. These findings have broad implications for future Raman spectroscopic studies of moganite, for the assessment of the quartz/moganite ratio, using this band, must take into account the contribution from silanole that are present in chalcedony and moganite.
    Mots-clés : Chalcedony, Crystallography, Flint, Geochemistry, Heat treatment, Mineral Resources, Mineralogy, Moganite, Quartz, Raman band assignment, Silanole (SiOH), Silica rocks.

  • Schmidt, Patrick, Masse, Sylvie, Laurent, Guillaume, Slodczyk, Aneta, Le Bourhis, Eric, Perrenoud, Christian, Livage, Jacques, et Fröhlich, François.0 « Crystallographic And Structural Transformations Of Sedimentary Chalcedony In Flint Upon Heat Treatment ». Journal of Archaeological Science 39(1): 135-144.
    Résumé : The early occurrence of intentional heat treatment of silica rocks has recently become a key element in the discussion about the cultural modernity of prehistoric populations. Lithic vestiges are the only sources that remain of this process and the understanding of the material’s properties and transformations are essential for reconstructing the conditions and parameters applied during heat treatment. Several models of the structural transformations upon heating have been proposed in the current literature. These models are often contradictory and do not account for the most recent structural and mineralogical data on chalcedony. In order to propose a new model, we elaborated an experimental procedure and applied different techniques involving infrared spectroscopy, solid state NMR, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The results show that the major transformation to happen is the loss of silanole (SiOH) and the creation of new Si–O–Si bonds according to the reaction: Si‑OH HO–Si → Si–O–Si + H2O. This reaction starts between 200 °C and 300 °C and causes an increase in the hardness of the rocks. The maximal annealing temperature and the ramp rate are the functions of the ability of the structure to evacuate newly created H2O and depend on the size of the specimen and the volume of its porosity. These results also show that the annealing duration at maximum temperature can be relatively short (<50 min) for a sufficiently large amount of transformation to be accomplished.
    Mots-clés : Annealing, Flint, Heat treatment, Hydroxyl, Length-fast chalcedony, Porosity, Silanole.

  • Schwartz, J, Houghton, F, Bondioli, L, et Macchiarelli, R. 2012. « Bones, Teeth, And Estimating Age Of Perinates: Carthaginian Infant Sacrifice Revisited ». Antiquity 86: 738-745.

  • Shao, Qingfeng, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Falguères, Christophe, Dolo, Jean-Michel, et Garcia, Tristan.0 « A New U-Uptake Model For Combined Esr/u-Series Dating Of Tooth Enamel ». Quaternary Geochronology 10: 406-411.
    Résumé : Combined ESR/U-series dating of tooth enamel using US model implies the calculation of a specific parameter p for each dental tissue to reconstruct its U-uptake history. The US model simulates this history as a continuous incorporation process without leaching, where the 238U–234U–230Th system evolves towards secular equilibrium state. Consequently, the application of this model is restricted to the samples displaying 230Th/234U activity ratio below or close to equilibrium with maximum value of ∼1.05 for each tissue. In order to overcome this limitation, here, a new model named Accelerating Uptake (AU) model is proposed. This model describes U-uptake into dental tissue as an accelerating process by the introduction of two parameters, the initial uptake rate and the acceleration of this uptake rate. The AU model is then able to reconstruct a process combining incorporation followed by leaching, as well as continuous uptake one. With this model, the evolution of 230Th/234U activity ratio with time can reach values higher than unity, even beyond equilibrium. The AU model is useful in cases for which age estimates cannot be calculated by routine use of US model. The application of the AU model to the palaeoanthropological site of Mauer in Germany shows its potential for extending the applicability of the combined ESR/U-series dating of tooth enamel.
    Mots-clés : ESR/U-series dating, Tooth enamel, U-uptake model.

  • Sitzia, Luca, Bertran, Pascal, Boulogne, Stéphane, Brenet, Michel, Crassard, Rémy, Delagnes, Anne, Frouin, Marine, Hatté, Christine, Jaubert, Jacques, Khalidi, Lamya, Messager, Erwan, Mercier, Norbert, Meunier, Alain, Peigné, Stéphane, Queffelec, Alain, Tribolo, Chantal, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « The Paleoenvironment And Lithic Taphonomy Of Shi’Bat Dihya 1, A Middle Paleolithic Site In Wadi Surdud, Yemen ». Geoarchaeology 27(6): 471–491.
    Résumé : The Shi'bat Dihya 1 site in western Yemen, dated by optically stimulated luminescence to 55 ka, provides insight into the Middle Paleolithic peopling of the Arabian Peninsula. The archaeological layer is interstratified within thick, sandy silt floodplain deposits filling a piedmont basin. Luminescence dates, lack of soil development, and gypsum precipitation indicate a high accretion rate of the floodplain during Marine Isotope Stage 3, in connection with a (semi)-arid environment. Rapid overbank sedimentation was likely a result of the remobilization of loess material deposited on the Yemeni Great Escarpment at the periphery of the adjacent Tihama coastal sand desert or of other sources. Fabric and size analyses of the lithic artifacts, together with spatial projections, indicate site modifications by floods. Primary modifications include (1) selective accumulation of medium-sized lithic pieces as a result of hydraulic sorting, (2) bimodal orientation of artifacts, and (3) ripple-like arrangement of lithics and bone/tooth fragments. The overrepresentation of teeth may also be a consequence of sorting. Although floods have distorted the original site patterning, long-distance transport of artifacts by water can be excluded, as indicated by relatively high refitting rate, close proximity of artifacts derived from the same block of raw material, and lack of abrasion of the pieces. Therefore, the site is considered “geologically” in situ because its remobilization by water occurred shortly after human abandonment. This study also stresses that the effective preservation of a site cannot be assessed without careful taphonomic study, even in a potentially favorable depositional context such as silty alluvium.

  • Valensi, Patricia, Crégut-Bonnoure, Evelyne, et Defleur, Alban.0 « Archaeozoological Data From The Mousterian Level From Moula-Guercy (Ardèche, France) Bearing Cannibalised Neanderthal Remains ». Quaternary International 252: 48-55.
    Résumé : The Moula-Guercy cave, in the southeast of France, contains an important stratigraphic sequence attributed to the Mousterian, of Middle and Upper Pleistocene age. The faunal assemblages are rich and have been biostratigraphically well dated. After methodical excavations from 1992 to 1999, layer XV, representing a temperate optimum (MIS 5.5), yielded over a hundred Neanderthal remains with evidence of cannibalism on six specimens. This paper presents the detailed and hitherto unpublished results of the archaeozoological study of the large mammals from this level. In 1999, relatively classical analytical methods were applied in order to compare the results with those of the cannibalised human remains, studied separately. The fauna from layer XV is not abundant but is very diversified, represented by over 1500 remains from 23 different species. The red deer is the second most consumed species after the human species. Layer XV appears to correspond to a summer or autumn hunting halt.

  • Vaquero, Manuel, Chacón, María Gema, García-Antón, María Dolores, Gómez de Soler, Bruno, Martínez, Kenneth, et Cuartero, Felipe.0 « Time And Space In The Formation Of Lithic Assemblages: The Example Of Abric Romaní Level J ». Quaternary International 247: 162-181.
    Résumé : Behavioral strategies are a primary focus in the study of Middle Paleolithic assemblages. Since the emergence of the processual paradigma, this research has been partly based on the use of interpretive frameworks derived from ethnoarcheological sources. However, this approach is flawed by the lack of correspondence between the time scale of the ethnographic information and the time scale of the archeological record. This paper presents the lithic assemblage from level J (ca. 50 ka BP), one of the Middle Paleolithic layers excavated in the Abric Romaní (Capellades, Spain). The study of this assemblage has been carried out from a spatio-temporal perspective, trying to discern two different time scales involved in the formation of the archeological record: the geological time scale of the assemblage-as-a-whole and the ethnographic time scale of the individual events. The results suggest that several domains of lithic variability, like raw material provisioning, artifact transport and spatial patterns, are time-dependent and should be approached taking into account the temporal depth of the archeological assemblages.

  • Volpato, Virginie, Macchiarelli, Roberto, Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie, Fiore, Ivana, Bondioli, Luca, et Frayer, David W.0 « Hand To Mouth In A Neandertal: Right-Handedness In Regourdou 1 ». PLoS ONE 7(8): e43949.
    Résumé : We describe and analyze a Neandertal postcranial skeleton and dentition, which together show unambiguous signs of right-handedness. Asymmetries between the left and right upper arm in Regourdou 1 were identified nearly 20 years ago, then confirmed by more detailed analyses of the inner bone structure for the clavicle, humerus, radius and ulna. The total pattern of all bones in the shoulder and arm reveals that Regourdou 1 was a right-hander. Confirmatory evidence comes from the mandibular incisors, which display a distinct pattern of right oblique scratches, typical of right-handed manipulations performed at the front of the mouth. Regourdou's right handedness is consistent with the strong pattern of manual lateralization in Neandertals and further confirms a modern pattern of left brain dominance, presumably signally linguistic competence. These observations along with cultural, genetic and morphological evidence indicate language competence in Neandertals and their European precursors.

  • Zanolli, Clément, Bondioli, Luca, Mancini, Lucia, Mazurier, Arnaud, Widianto, Harry, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « Brief Communication: Two Human Fossil Deciduous Molars From The Sangiran Dome (Java, Indonesia): Outer And Inner Morphology ». American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147(3): 472–481.
    Résumé : Currently, the human deciduous dental record from the Pleistocene deposits of the Sangiran Dome, Java, consists of only eight specimens. Here we report two deciduous crowns collected near the village of Pucung. While their precise geo-chronological context remains unknown, a provenance from the Early–Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation, or from the Early Pleistocene “Grenzbank Zone,” is very likely. These isolated specimens consist of an upper first molar (PCG.1) and a lower second molar (PCG.2). Taxonomic discrimination of the Indonesian tooth record is difficult because of the convergence in crown size and appearance between Pongo and Homo. Accordingly, as PCG.2 still bears a concretion masking most of its features, we coupled the outer analysis of the two specimens with an investigation of their inner morphology. In addition to external characteristics, virtual imaging and quantitative assessment of inner morphology and tissue proportions support an attribution to the taxon Homo, and we preliminary allocate both specimens toH. erectus. Am J Phys Anthropol 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Mots-clés : deciduous molars, Homo erectus, Inner structure, Microtomography, outer morphology, Sangiran Dome.

  • Zeitoun, Valéry, Forestier, Hubert, Sophady, Heng, Puaud, Simon, et Billault, Laurence.0 « Direct Dating Of A Neolithic Burial In The Laang Spean Cave (Battambang Province, Cambodia): First Regional Chrono-Cultural Implications ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 11(7): 529-537.
--- Exporter la sélection au format