The Neandertal vertebral column and thorax have been regarded traditionally regarded as slightly more robust but within the variation of modern humans (Trinkaus, 1983 ; Arensburg, 1991). On the contrary, the recent detailed analyses of the different regions that conform the Neandertal vertebral column and of the thorax demonstrate that there are significant differences not only in the individual elements but also in the posture, for example in the lumbar lordosis, which is less curved in Neandertals. These new results fit better in a general anatomical perspective in which both the Neandertal cranium and the pelvis show significant differences from modern humans. The challenges now are to obtain a 3D reconstruction of these two anatomical regions in order to grasp the general morphological differences and to know the integration of these regions with the cranium and the pelvis.
Finally, I have also been involved in the finding of new Neandertal fossil evidence revising different collections. A short summary of the new findings will be provided.