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UMR7194 - Publications dans des revues indexées (depuis 2010)

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2015 : publications dans des revues à comité de lecture

  • Arnaud, Julie, Peretto, Carlo, et Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique.0 « The Grotta Guattari Mandibular Remains In The Italian Human Evolutionary Context: A Morphological And Morphometrical Overlook Of The Neanderthal Jaw ». Quaternary International.

  • Arsuaga, Juan Luis, Carretero, José-Miguel, Lorenzo, Carlos, Gómez-Olivencia, Asier, Pablos, Adrián, Rodríguez, Laura, García-González, Rebeca, Bonmatí, Alejandro, Quam, Rolf M., Pantoja-Pérez, Ana, Martínez, Ignacio, Aranburu, Arantza, Gracia-Téllez, Ana, Poza-Rey, Eva, Sala, Nohemi, García, Nuria, Velasco, Almudena Alcázar de, Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria, Castro, José María Bermúdez de, et Carbonell, Eudald.0 « Postcranial Morphology Of The Middle Pleistocene Humans From Sima De Los Huesos, Spain ». Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(37): 11524-11529.
    Résumé : Current knowledge of the evolution of the postcranial skeleton in the genus Homo is hampered by a geographically and chronologically scattered fossil record. Here we present a complete characterization of the postcranium of the middle Pleistocene paleodeme from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) and its paleobiological implications. The SH hominins show the following: (i) wide bodies, a plesiomorphic character in the genus Homo inherited from their early hominin ancestors; (ii) statures that can be found in modern human middle-latitude populations that first appeared 1.6–1.5 Mya; and (iii) large femoral heads in some individuals, a trait that first appeared during the middle Pleistocene in Africa and Europe. The intrapopulational size variation in SH shows that the level of dimorphism was similar to modern humans (MH), but the SH hominins were less encephalized than Neandertals. SH shares many postcranial anatomical features with Neandertals. Although most of these features appear to be either plesiomorphic retentions or are of uncertain phylogenetic polarity, a few represent Neandertal apomorphies. Nevertheless, the full suite of Neandertal-derived features is not yet present in the SH population. The postcranial evidence is consistent with the hypothesis based on the cranial morphology that the SH hominins are a sister group to the later Neandertals. Comparison of the SH postcranial skeleton to other hominins suggests that the evolution of the postcranium occurred in a mosaic mode, both at a general and at a detailed level.
    Mots-clés : bauplan, human evolution, phylogeny, postcranial anatomy, Sierra de Atapuerca.

  • Azuara, J., Combourieu-Nebout, N., Lebreton, V., Mazier, F., Müller, S. D., et Dezileau, L.0 « Late Holocene Vegetation Changes In Relation With Climate Fluctuations And Human Activities In Languedoc (Southern France) ». Climate of the Past Discussions 11: 4123–4157.

  • Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Falguères, Christophe, Laurent, Michel, Dolo, Jean-Michel, Shao, Qingfeng, Auguste, Patrick, et Tuffreau, Alain.0 « Esr/u-Series Dating Of Faunal Remains From The Paleoanthropological Site Of Biache-Saint-Vaast (Pas-De-Calais, France) ». Quaternary Geochronology.

  • Balzeau, A.0 « Comparative Aspects Of Temporal Bone Pneumatization In Some African Fossil Hominins ». BMSAP: 1–7.

  • Bartsiokas, Antonis, Arsuaga, Juan-Luis, Santos, Elena, Algaba, Milagros, et Gómez-Olivencia, Asier.0 « The Lameness Of King Philip Ii And Royal Tomb I At Vergina, Macedonia ». Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(32): 9844–9848.

  • Beaudet, Amélie, Zanolli, Clément, Redae, Blade Engda, Endalamaw, Metasebia, Braga, José, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « A New Cercopithecoid Dentognathic Specimen Attributed To Theropithecus From The Late Early Pleistocene (C. 1 Ma) Deposits Of Simbiro, At Melka Kunture, Ethiopian Highlands ». Comptes Rendus Palevol.

  • Beghin, P., Charbit, S., Kageyama, M., Combourieu-Nebout, N., Hatté, C., Dumas, C., et Peterschmitt, J.-Y.0 « What Drives Lgm Precipitation Over The Western Mediterranean? A Study Focused On The Iberian Peninsula And Northern Morocco ». Climate Dynamics: 1–21.

  • Beyneix, Alain.0 « Une Médecine Du Fonds Des Âges: Trépanations, Amputations Et Tatouages Thérapeutiques Au Néolithique ». L'Anthropologie 119(1): 58–71.

  • Blain, Hugues-Alexandre, Bailon, Salvador, et Agustí, Jordi.0 « The Geographical And Chronological Pattern Of Herpetofaunal Pleistocene Extinctions On The Iberian Peninsula ». Comptes Rendus Palevol.

  • Bocherens, Hervé, Drucker, Dorothée G., Germonpré, Mietje, Lázničková-Galetová, Martina, Naito, Yuichi I., Wissing, Christoph, Brůžek, Jaroslav, et Oliva, Martin.0 « Reconstruction Of The Gravettian Food-Web At Předmostí I Using Multi-Isotopic Tracking (13C, 15N, 34S) Of Bone Collagen ». Quaternary International 359–360: 211-228.
    Résumé : The Gravettian site of Předmostí I in the central Moravian Plain has yielded a rich and diverse large mammal fauna dated around 25–27,000 14C years BP (ca. 29,500–31,500 cal BP). This fauna includes numerous carnivores (cave lion, wolf, brown bear, polar fox, wolverine) and herbivores (reindeer, large bovine, red deer, muskox, horse, woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth) whose trophic position could be reconstructed using stable isotopic tracking (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) of bone collagen (n = 63). Among large canids, two morphotypes, “Pleistocene wolves” and “Palaeolithic dogs”, were considered, and two human bones attributed to the Gravettian assemblage of Předmostí I were also sampled. The trophic system around the Gravettian settlement of Předmostí I showed the typical niche partitioning among herbivores and carnivores seen in other mammoth-steppe contexts. The contribution of the analyzed prey species to the diet of the predators, including humans, was evaluated using a Bayesian mixing model (SIAR). Lions included great amounts of reindeer/muskox and possibly bison in their diet, while Pleistocene wolves were more focused on horse and possibly mammoth. Strong reliance on mammoth meat was found for the human of the site, similarly to previously analyzed individuals from other Gravettian sites in Moravia. Interestingly, the large canids interpreted as “Palaeolithic dogs” had a high proportion of reindeer/muskox in their diet, while consumption of mammoth would be expected from the availability of this prey especially in case of close interaction with humans. The peculiar isotopic composition of the Palaeolithic dogs of Předmostí I may indicate some control of their dietary intake by Gravettian people, who could have use them more for transportation than hunting purpose.
    Mots-clés : Collagen, Dog, Food web, Gravettian, Moravian Plain, stable isotopes.

  • Bourguignon, Laurence, Crochet, Jean-Yves, Capdevila, Ramon, Ivorra, Jérôme, Antoine, Pierre-Olivier, Agustí, Jordi, Barsky, Deborah, Blain, Hugues-Alexandre, Boulbes, Nicolas, Bruxelles, Laurent, Claude, Julien, Cochard, David, Filoux, Arnaud, Firmat, Cyril, Lozano-Fernández, Iván, Magniez, Pierre, Pelletier, Maxime, Rios-Garaizar, Joseba, Testu, Agnès, Valensi, Patricia, et De Weyer, Louis.0 « Bois-De-Riquet (Lézignan-La-Cèbe, Hérault): A Late Early Pleistocene Archeological Occurrence In Southern France ». Quaternary International.
    Résumé : The Bois-de-Riquet archeological site (Lézignan-la-Cèbe, Hérault, France) provides significant paleontological and archeological data about the first occupations of Western Europe. Although only partially excavated, the site has already yielded an exceptionally rich paleontological assemblage as well as some stone artefacts. The archeostratigraphical unit “US2” is encased within a basalt flowstone radiometrically dated to 1.57 Ma. The sedimentary infill has preserved large and small mammal fossils, as well as coprolites. Biochronological interpretations suggest an age of around 1.3–1.1 Ma for the accumulation. A few basalt artefacts were exhumed alongside the fossil bones. Interpretation of the lithics has required the elaboration of a strict selection protocol based upon extensive knapping experiments with local basalt. This paper presents results from the interdisciplinary study of the Bois-de-Riquet site in the aim of contextualizing these discoveries. The microstratigraphical analysis of the deposits is presented with recent geological interpretations in order to contribute a better understanding of the main features of this assemblage, and its remarkable preservation within the thermal and textural boundary between a basalt flowstone's base and its entablature.
    Mots-clés : Basalt, Biochronology, Early humans, Late Early Pleistocene, Stone tools, Taphonomy.

  • Bruner, Emiliano, Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique, Wu, Xiujie, de la Cuétara, José Manuel, et Holloway, Ralph.0 « A Paleoneurological Survey Of Homo Erectus Endocranial Metrics ». Quaternary International 368: 80–87.

  • Calvet, M., Gunnell, Y., Braucher, R., Hez, G., Bourlès, D., Guillou, V., et Delmas, M.0 « Cave Levels As Proxies For Measuring Post-Orogenic Uplift: Evidence From Cosmogenic Dating Of Alluvium-Filled Caves In The French Pyrenees ». Geomorphology 246: 617-633.
    Résumé : The rates and chronology of valley incision in mountain ranges have been studied in various parts of the globe, but the causes of river incision are often blurred because tectonic, climatic, and sea level-related forcing signals are difficult to distinguish from one another. The Têt River limestone gorge in the Eastern Pyrenees, which displays multiple cave levels containing datable alluvial deposits, provides an opportunity for clarifying this debate. Horizontal epiphreatic passages in limestone can be used as substitutes for fluvial terraces because they correspond to former valley floors and, therefore, also record the position of former local base levels. In the Têt canyon, the passages are filled with quartz-rich sand and gravel sequences that can be dated by 26Al/10Be burial dating. The canyon has cut into a Middle Miocene pediment system—now forming a raised plateau at 1250–1500 m—and displays nine cave levels over a vertical height of 1 km. One alluvial fill sequence in a cave at + 270 m above datum (i.e., the local river bed) yielded a weighted mean age of 5.14 ± 0.41 Ma; another, situated at + 110 m above datum, yielded weighted mean ages of 2.23 ± 0.230 Ma and 1.20 ± 0.286 Ma. The data convert to a mean incision rate of ~ 52 m·Ma− 1 since the beginning of the Pliocene, and involved an acceleration to 92 m·Ma− 1 during the Quaternary. Pre-burial catchment denudation rates range from 35 to 7 m·Ma− 1, and these also doubled during the early Quaternary. It is concluded that: (i) valley incision into the Miocene pediment has been occurring since 5, probably 10 Ma; (ii) there is no evidence of a Messinian canyon in the Villefranche gorge, strongly suggesting through various additional indicators that interference of the Messinian Salinity Crisis with the canyon incision history was minimal; (iii) valley deepening was not a steady process, and recorded periods of stability around 1–2 Ma and perhaps 6–5 Ma; and (iv) the terraced network of epiphreatic cave levels is primarily explained by tectonic uplift. It follows that the elevated erosion surfaces of the Pyrenees, such as the Miocene pediment directly situated above the canyon edge, were not shaped at high elevations, e.g., by ‘altiplanation’; they formed, instead, close to base level and were uplifted in successive stages by tectonic processes. The study emphasizes the more general proposition that tectonic signals (as opposed to climatic or eustatic) in valley-incision chronologies are best singled out at locations situated among the outer ranges of mountain belts, i.e., in canyons such as the Têt, that respond immediately to base level changes relative to the adjacent foreland. In the inner ranges, fluvial incision is more likely to be affected by the interference of climatic factors (e.g., glaciers), or to be delayed by bedrock impediments to upstream-propagating knickpoints.
    Mots-clés : Cave levels, Cosmogenic dating, Messinian Salinity Crisis, Pyrenees, Tectonic uplift, Valley incision.

  • Calvet, Marc, Gunnell, Yanni, et Farines, Bernard.0 « Flat-Topped Mountain Ranges: Their Global Distribution And Value For Understanding The Evolution Of Mountain Topography ». Geomorphology 241: 255–291.

  • Carbonell, Eudald, Barsky, Deborah, Sala, Robert, et Celiberti, Vincenzo.0 « Structural Continuity And Technological Change In Lower Pleistocene Toolkits ». Quaternary International.

  • Carretero, José Miguel, Quam, Rolf M., Gómez-Olivencia, Asier, Castilla, María, Rodríguez, Laura, et García-González, Rebeca.0 « The Magdalenian Human Remains From El Mirón Cave, Cantabria (Spain) ». Journal of Archaeological Science.

  • Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie, Bertini, Adèle, Russo-Ermolli, Elda, Peyron, Odile, Klotz, Stefan, Montade, Vincent, Fauquette, Severine, Allen, Judy, Fusco, Fabio, Goring, Simon, Huntley, Brian, Joannin, Sébastien, Lebreton, Vincent, Magri, Donatella, Martinetto, Edoardo, Orain, Ronan, et Sadori, Laura.0 « Climate Changes In The Central Mediterranean And Italian Vegetation Dynamics Since The Pliocene ». Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 218: 127-147.
    Résumé : Pollen records and pollen-based climate reconstructions from the Italian peninsula (central Mediterranean) show clear signals of vegetation change linked to variations in water availability in the Mediterranean basin over the past 5 million years. Profound vegetation changes occurred in four major steps from the Pliocene to the present. The subtropical taxa that dominate Pliocene assemblages declined and then disappeared between 3–2.8 and 1.66 Ma (at around 2.8 Ma in the North and later in the South), progressively being replaced by temperate Quercus forests at mid altitude. In the south Italy, Quercus expanded more at around 1.4–1.3 Ma and Fagus proportions increased after 0.5 Ma. Conifer forest (first mainly composed of Tsuga then by Abies and Picea) began to expand at 2.8 Ma, probably rather at high altitude, beginning at 2.8 Ma. Mediterranean-type forest, rare during the Early Pleistocene, developed and increased in diversity during the Middle Pleistocene. Open landscapes, with higher abundances of steppic taxa, became more frequent and extensive at the onset of Glacial/Interglacial (G/I) cyclicity around 2.6 Ma and gradually expanded with more and more marked glacials. Climate reconstructions done on selected pollen records from southern Italy suggest a decline in winter temperature and annual precipitation from the early Pleistocene to the Holocene. Specifically, both precipitation and winter temperature reconstructions show changes in interglacial maxima and glacial minima at around 3–2.8 Ma, 2 Ma, 1.3–1.4 Ma and 0.5 Ma. This critical review provides evidence that the North–South precipitation gradient, with drier conditions in the South, has been a consistent feature of the Italian peninsula since the beginning of the Pleistocene.
    Mots-clés : Central Mediterranean, Climate, Palynology, Pliocene, Quaternary, Vegetation.

  • Dabkowski, J., Royle, S. H., Antoine, P., Marca-Bell, A., et Andrews, J. E.0 « High-Resolution Δ 18 O Seasonality Record In A French Eemian Tufa Stromatolite (Caours, Somme Basin) ». Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 438: 277–284.

  • de Lumley, Marie-Antoinette.0 « L’Homme De Tautavel. Un Homo Erectus Européen Évolué. Homo Erectus Tautavelensis ». L'Anthropologie 119(3): 303–348.

  • Delmas, M.0 « The Last Maximum Ice Extent And Subsequent Deglaciation Of The Pyrenees: An Overview Of Recent Research ». Cuadernos de investigación geográfica 41(2): 359–387.

  • Demay, Laëtitia, Péan, Stéphane, Belyaeva, Valentina I., Vasil'ev, Pavel M., et Patou-Mathis, Marylène.0 « Zooarchaeological Study Of An Upper Palaeolithic Site With Mammoth Remains, Pushkari I–Excavation Vii (Chernigov Oblast, Ukraine) ». Quaternary International.

  • Drucker, Dorothée G., Vercoutère, Carole, Chiotti, Laurent, Nespoulet, Roland, Crépin, Laurent, Conard, Nicholas J., Münzel, Susanne C., Higham, Thomas, van der Plicht, Johannes, Lázničková-Galetová, Martina, et Bocherens, Hervé.0 « Tracking Possible Decline Of Woolly Mammoth During The Gravettian In Dordogne (France) And The Ach Valley (Germany) Using Multi-Isotope Tracking (13C, 14C, 15N, 34S, 18O) ». Quaternary International 359–360: 304-317.
    Résumé : The woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) was an emblematic and key species of the so-called mammoth steppe ecosystem between ca. 110,000 and 12,000 years ago. Its contribution to human subsistence during the Gravettian period as source of raw material was documented in southwestern France and southwestern Germany, with some evidence of active hunting in the latter region. However, decreasing genetic diversity and increasing indications of nutritional stress point to a likely decline of this megaherbivore. The specificity of the ecological niche occupied by the woolly mammoth is clearly reflected by their collagen 13C and 15N abundances (δ13Ccoll and δ15Ncoll), measured on skeletal remains of the typical mammoth steppe. The abundances of carbon-13 in mammoth collagen are comparable to those of other grazers like horse (Equus sp.), while the nitrogen-15 abundances are significantly higher (about 3‰) than in the other herbivores, either horse or reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). During the Aurignacian and Gravettian occupation at Geißenklösterle in the Ach Valley (Germany), the mammoths had the expected stable isotope signature, but the nitrogen-15 of horses showed an unexpected overlap with those of the mammoth. This unusual pattern was already occurring during the Aurignacian, while the oxygen-18 abundances in bone phosphate (δ18Obp) of horse and reindeer were unchanged between Aurignacian and Gravettian periods, which rules out significant change in environmental and climatic conditions. Thus, we hypothesize that during the Aurignacian and Gravettian, the ecological niche of mammoth was intact but not occupied intensively by mammoths due to a decline in their population. This decline could be tentatively explained by human pressure through hunting. In Dordogne (France), decreasing horse and reindeer δ15Ncoll values coeval to decreasing horse δ18Obp values between the Aurignacian and the Early Gravettian periods reflected a clear change in the environment, while no contrast in δ15Ncoll values was observed between the Early and Final Gravettian at the Abri Pataud. The mammoth of Dordogne yielded slightly higher δ15Ncoll values than expected, probably as a consequence of the nursing effect since all the analyzed samples were ivory instead of bone. The direct dating and sulphur-34 measurement on the ivory of the Early Gravettian at Pataud showed that almost all of them were of contemporaneous and local origin. Significant contrasts in δ34Scoll values were found between the Dordogne and the Ach Valley for the same herbivores species, which confirms the potential of sulphur-34 in collagen as a mobility tracker.
    Mots-clés : Ach Valley, Aurignacian, Dordogne, Gravettian, Mammoth, stable isotopes.

  • Farines, Bernard, Calvet, Marc, et Gunnell, Yanni.0 « The Summit Erosion Surfaces Of The Inner Betic Cordillera: Their Value As Tools For Reconstructing The Chronology Of Topographic Growth In Southern Spain ». Geomorphology 233: 92–111.

  • Forestier, Hubert, Sophady, Heng, Puaud, Simon, Celiberti, Vincenzo, Frère, Stéphane, Zeitoun, Valéry, Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile, Mourer, Roland, Than, Heng, et Billault, Laurence.0 « The Hoabinhian From Laang Spean Cave In Its Stratigraphic, Chronological, Typo-Technological And Environmental Context (Cambodia, Battambang Province) ». Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 3: 194–206.

  • Frelat, M. A., et Souday, C.0 « The Bronze Age Necropolis Of Koh Ta Meas: Insights Into The Health Of The Earliest Inhabitants Of The Angkor Region ». BMSAP 27(3-4): 142-157.
    Résumé : The Koh Ta Meas site, near Angkor, Cambodia, has revealed a partially excavated Bronze Age necropolis (2870 BP +/- 60) comprising 27 burials. The aim of this study is to shed light on the earliest inhabitants known to date in the Angkor region and to gain further knowledge on Early Bronze Age populations in Southeast Asia. The burials of some individuals, probably wrapped in matting, the type of funeral artefacts or the presence of pig skulls suggest sophisticated mortuary rituals and evoke other Southeast Asian sites. Analyses of the skeletal remains show that the sample individuals are characterized by a short stature and gracile bones. As expected given the poor bone preservation, we found very little significant evidence of pathology, including infections and trauma. The dental health pattern at Koh Ta Meas is generally good and consistent with the consumption of rice, and may suggest a gendered division of activities. Comparisons between this small group and Iron Age series from the region indicate a possible decline in dental health with the intensification of rice agriculture. An interesting pattern of intentional tooth ablation identified at Koh Ta Meas confirms the cultural continuity in the Pre-Angkorian region, as suggested by the archaeological evidence. As in other Southeast Asian skeletal samples, the health profile of the earliest inhabitants of Angkor is generally good and consistent with the adoption of rice agriculture during the Bronze Age.
    Mots-clés : Archéologie funéraire, Bioarchaeology, Bioarchéologie, Burial archaeology, Cambodge, Cambodia, Demography, Evolutionary Biology, Human genetics, Palaeopathology, Paléopathologie, Protohistoire, Protohistory.

  • Gargani, Julien, Abdessadok, Salah, Tudryn, Alina, Sao, Cécile Chapon, Malassé, Anne Dambricourt, Gaillard, Claire, Moigne, Anne-Marie, Singh, Mukesh, Bhardwaj, Vipnesh, et Karir, Baldev.0 « Geology And Geomorphology Of Masol Paleonto-Archeological Site, Late Pliocene, Chandigarh, Siwalik Frontal Range, Nw India ». Comptes Rendus Palevol.

  • Gómez-Olivencia, Asier.0 « The Costal Skeleton Of The Neandertal Individual Of La Chapelle-Aux-Saints 1 ». Annales de Paléontologie 101(2): 127-141.
    Résumé : One hundred years ago, in this same journal, M. Boule described the nearly complete skeleton of a Neandertal from La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 in a series of articles, which constituted a monograph on this individual. Some of the anatomical regions, like the vertebral column and the thorax, were only described in a preliminary fashion. In this article, a full inventory and anatomical descriptions for all the ribs are provided for the first time. Additionally, new anatomical determinations for some of the elements are provided and justified. Finally a comparative metric analysis is performed which shows that La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 displays larger tubercle-iliocostal line distance 2 (TID2), posterior angle chord 2 (PAC2), posterior angle subtense 2 (PAS2), thick ribs and large maximum diameters of the sternal end (SEMxD) of its mid-thoracic ribs, features also present in other Neandertals individuals.
    Mots-clés : Anatomical determination, Côtes, Détermination anatomique, Homo neanderthalensis, Ribs, Thorax, Thoraxés.

  • Gómez-Olivencia, Asier, Crevecoeur, Isabelle, et Balzeau, Antoine.0 « La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal Child Reloaded: New Remains And Re-Assessment Of The Original Collection ». Journal of human evolution 82: 107–126.

  • Gómez-Olivencia, Asier, Sala, Nohemi, Arceredillo, Diego, García, Nuria, Martínez-Pillado, Virginia, Rios-Garaizar, Joseba, Garate, Diego, Solar, Gonzalo, et Libano, Inaki.0 « The Punta Lucero Quarry Site (Zierbena, Bizkaia): A Window Into The Middle Pleistocene In The Northern Iberian Peninsula ». Quaternary Science Reviews 121: 52–74.

  • Germonpré, Mietje, Sablin, Mikhail V., Lázničková-Galetová, Martina, Després, Viviane, Stevens, Rhiannon E., Stiller, Mathias, et Hofreiter, Michael.0 « Palaeolithic Dogs And Pleistocene Wolves Revisited: A Reply To ». Journal of Archaeological Science 54: 210–216.

  • Ghinassi, Massimiliano, Oms, Oriol, Papini, Mauro, Scarciglia, Fabio, Carnevale, Giorgio, Sani, Federico, Rook, Lorenzo, Delfino, Massimo, Pavia, Marco, Libsekal, Yosief, Bondioli, Luca, Coppa, Alfredo, Frayer, David W., et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « An Integrated Study Of The Homo-Bearing Aalat Stratigraphic Section (Eritrea): An Expanded Continental Record At The Early–Middle Pleistocene Transition ». Journal of African Earth Sciences 112, Part A: 163-185.
    Résumé : The Early to Middle Pleistocene continental transition in East Africa is widely documented from lacustrine and deep-sea records, although significant insights are also provided by fluvio-lacustrine successions of the central and southern African Rift Valley, such as the at Olduvai Gorge succession (Tanzania), the Bouri Formation (Ethiopia) and the Olorgesailie Formation (Kenya). The Early to Middle Pleistocene Dandiero Basin fill (Eritrean Danakil) represents the only continental succession in the northernmost sector of the African Rift Valley that provided abundant fossil vertebrates, including human remains. The present study integrates already available data with new sedimentological, pedological, magnetostratigraphic, paleontological and paleoanthropological investigations of the 300 m thick Aalat section (North Dandiero Basin). This sedimentary succession records repeated shifts from fluvial to lacustrine depositional settings, which occurred under the tight interaction between local tectonics and Pleistocene climate changes. Accumulation was associated with axial sedimentation in a NS-trending extensional basin, with an overall tectono-sedimentary setting comparable with that of the coeval Bouri Formation (Ethiopia). Because of the high rates of sedimentation, a poor to moderate degree of soil development characterizes the whole succession. Sporadic soil horizons testify to carbonate dissolution, leaching and accumulation in calcic and petrocalcic horizons (indicating an overall dry climate). The alternate with local to extensive iron-oxide/hydroxide segregation, promoted by water infiltration under varying drainage conditions and/or seasonal contrast, that record more humid conditions. Magnetostratigraphic dating and correlation indicates that this section is among the world's thickest record embracing the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition, spanning from the Jaramillo to the base of Brunhes chron. The terrestrial vertebrate fauna includes a typical Early to Middle Pleistocene East African mammalian assemblage for this age and is dominated by taxa characterized by strong water dependence. The ichthyofauna, with its abundant Clariidae, is also consistent with the shallow water, fluvio-lacustrine paleobiotopes. The cranial, dental and postcranial human remains from the lower part of the Aalat succession add valuable evidence about the patterns of variation and evolutionary dynamics in African Homo erectus/ergaster near the end of the Early Pleistocene.
    Mots-clés : Danakil, Dandiero, East Africa, Fossil vertebrates, Magnetostratigraphy, Paleoanthropology, Paleoenvironments, Paleopedology, Pleistocene, Sedimentology.

  • Guérin, Guillaume, Frouin, Marine, Talamo, Sahra, Aldeias, Vera, Bruxelles, Laurent, Chiotti, Laurent, Dibble, Harold L., Goldberg, Paul, Hublin, Jean-Jacques, Jain, Mayank, Lahaye, Christelle, Madelaine, Stéphane, Maureille, Bruno, McPherron, Shannon J. P., Mercier, Norbert, Murray, Andrew S., Sandgathe, Dennis, Steele, Teresa E., Thomsen, Kristina J., et Turq, Alain.0 « A Multi-Method Luminescence Dating Of The Palaeolithic Sequence Of La Ferrassie Based On New Excavations Adjacent To The La Ferrassie 1 And 2 Skeletons ». Journal of Archaeological Science 58: 147-166.
    Résumé : A new interdisciplinary project was initiated to excavate a portion of the Palaeolithic site of La Ferrassie left intact by earlier excavations. One of the aims of this project was to provide chronological information on the succession of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic layers, as well as on the skeletons unearthed by Capitan and Peyrony in the early 1900's. We report here preliminary results on the lithics, faunal remains, site formation processes, and on the stratigraphic context of the La Ferrassie 1 and 2 skeletons that were found adjacent to our excavations. Finally, results from luminescence dating of the sediments and a preliminary set of radiocarbon ages are presented. Quartz OSL, both at the multi-grain and single-grain levels of analysis, and post-IR IRSL of feldspar at various stimulation temperatures are compared. The quartz/feldspar comparison revealed a bleaching problem for the quartz OSL (and the feldspar pIRIR signals) from Layer 2; as a consequence, the age of this Layer was determined using a minimum age model. A Mousterian industry with bifaces, at the base of the sequence, has been dated between 91 ± 9 and 44 ± 3 ka. The Ferrassie Mousterian layers are attributed to MIS 3, between 54 ± 3 and 40 ± 2 ka, and thus appear very late in the final Middle Palaeolithic of the region; furthermore, these ages constrain the chronology of the La Ferrassie 1 and 2 skeletons, which have been attributed to one of these Ferrassie Mousterian layers. The Châtelperronian layer is dated to 42 ± 3 ka and the Aurignacian to 37 ± 2 ka. Implications of the ages for the La Ferrassie 1 and 2 skeletons, and for the variability of late Mousterian, are discussed.
    Mots-clés : Middle Palaeolithic, Mousterian, OSL dating, Post-IR IRSL dating, Single grain.

  • Guimaraes, S., Fernandez-Jalvo, Y., Stoetzel, E., Gorgé, O., Bennett, E. A., Denys, C., Grange, T., et Geigl, E.-M.0 « Owl Pellets: A Wise Dna Source For Small Mammal Genetics ». Journal of Zoology.

  • Haesaerts, Paul, Péan, Stéphane, Valladas, Hélène, Damblon, Freddy, et Nuzhnyi, Dmytro.0 « Contribution À La Stratigraphie Du Site Paléolithique De Mezhyrich (Ukraine) ». L'Anthropologie 119(4): 364–393.

  • Jeffrey, Amy, Denys, Christiane, Stoetzel, Emmanuelle, et Lee-Thorp, Julia A.0 « Influences On The Stable Oxygen And Carbon Isotopes In Gerbillid Rodent Teeth In Semi-Arid And Arid Environments: Implications For Past Climate And Environmental Reconstruction ». Earth and Planetary Science Letters 428: 84–96.

  • Krief, Sabrina, Daujeard, Camille, Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Lamon, Noemie, et Reynolds, Vernon.0 « Flavouring Food: The Contribution Of Chimpanzee Behaviour To The Understanding Of Neanderthal Calculus Composition And Plant Use In Neanderthal Diets ». Antiquity 89(344): 464–471.

  • Lanoë, François B., Péan, Stéphane, et Yanevich, Aleksandr.0 « Saiga Antelope Hunting In Crimea At The Pleistocene–Holocene Transition: The Site Of Buran-Kaya Iii Layer 4 ». Journal of Archaeological Science 54: 270–278.

  • Lázničková-Galetová, Martina.0 « The Phenomenon Of Gravettian Necklaces–Mammoth Ivory Necklaces From Dolní Věstonice I (Moravia, Czech Republic) ». Quaternary International 359: 229–239.

  • Locht, Jean-Luc, Hérisson, David, Goval, Emilie, Cliquet, Dominique, Huet, Briagell, Coutard, Sylvie, Antoine, Pierre, et Feray, Philippe.0 « Timescales, Space And Culture During The Middle Palaeolithic In Northwestern France ». Quaternary International.

  • Marquer, Laurent, Lebreton, Vincent, Otto, Thierry, et Messager, Erwan.0 « Étude Des Macro-, Méso-Et Micro-Charbons Du Site Épigravettien De Mezhyrich (Ukraine): Données Taphonomiques Et Anthracologiques ». L'Anthropologie 119(4): 487–504.

  • Mgeladze, Ana, et Moncel, Marie-Hélène.0 « The Acheulean In The South Caucasus (Georgia): Koudaro I And Tsona Lithic Assemblages ». Quaternary International.

  • Moigne, Anne-Marie, Valensi, Patricia, Auguste, Patrick, García-Solano, José, Tuffreau, Alain, Lamotte, Agnes, Barroso, Cecilio, et Moncel, Marie-Hélene.0 « Bone Retouchers From Lower Palaeolithic Sites: Terra Amata, Orgnac 3, Cagny-L'epinette And Cueva Del Angel ». Quaternary International.

  • Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Despriée, Jackie, Voinchet, Pierre, Courcimault, Gilles, Hardy, Bruce, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Puaud, Simon, Gallet, Xavier, et Falguères, Christophe.0 « The Acheulean Workshop Of La Noira (France, 700 Ka) In The European Technological Context ». Quaternary International.

  • Mounier, A., et Caparros, M.0 « The Phylogenetic Status Of Homo Heidelbergensis – A Cladistic Study Of Middle Pleistocene Hominins ». BMSAP 27(3-4): 110-134.
    Résumé : Two views prevail concerning the significance of H. heidelbergensis in Middle Pleistocene human evolution. H. heidelbergensis sensu stricto refers to a European chronospecies of H. neanderthalensis while H. heidelbergensis sensu lato is considered to be an Afro-European species ancestral to modern humans and Neandertals. Here, we test the phylogenetic validity of H. heidelbergensis using a cladistic analysis based on cranial morphological data of Pleistocene fossils. We perform a low-level analysis to ascertain the information content of the morphological features, a high-level analysis with reweighted characters resulting in a single most parsimonious cladogram and a bootstrap analysis to assess the robustness of this cladogram. Our results show that (i) the identification of a coherent H. heidelbergensis s.l. species is not well supported and is equivocal; (ii) the hypothetical last common ancestor of H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis has more affinities with African specimens than European; (iii) two Middle Pleistocene European fossils (Atapuerca SH5 and Steinheim) should be classified as H. neanderthalensis.
    Mots-clés : Cladistics, Cladistique, Demography, Dernier ancêtre commun des Hommes modernes et des Néandertaliens, Evolutionary Biology, Homo heidelbergensis, Human genetics, Last common ancestor of modern humans and Neandertals, Sima de los Huesos.

  • Nicoud, Elisa, Aureli, Daniele, Pagli, Marina, Villa, Valentina, Chaussé, Christine, Agostini, Silvano, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Boschian, Giovanni, Degeai, Jean-Philippe, Fusco, Fabio, Giaccio, Biagio, Hernandez, Marion, Kuzucuoglu, Catherine, Lahaye, Christelle, Lemorini, Cristina, Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole, Mazza, Paul, Mercier, Norbert, Nomade, Sébastien, Pereira, Alison, Robert, Vincent, Rossi, Maria Adelaide, Virmoux, Clément, et Zupancich, Andrea.0 « Preliminary Data From Valle Giumentina Pleistocene Site (Abruzzo, Central Italy): A New Approach To A Clactonian And Acheulian Sequence ». Quaternary International.
    Résumé : Valle Giumentina is a Pleistocene open-air site in Central Italy (Abruzzo). Nine archaeological layers occur in the last 25 m of a 70 m thick sedimentary sequence. In the 1950s, the various archaeological layers were attributed to the Clactonian, Acheulian and Levalloisian traditions. Recent multidisciplinary fieldwork and studies (2012–2016) acquired new archaeological, chronostratigraphical and paleoenvironmental data. This contribution presents the preliminary results of the ongoing excavation of layer 42-ALB. This is a paleosol located at 4 m depth, at the top of a lacustrine deposit directly below the coarse deposits associated with the last major erosive event. Faunal remains consisted essentially by Cervus elaphus. The lithic series is characterized by a specific flake production system: only a part of the block is reduced, and platforms and surfaces are not prepared. Several methods are used, including the SSDA (système par surfaces de débitage alternées). Backed flakes are frequent. Numerous blanks are transformed by intensive or marginal retouch. Functional objectives are multiple, as shown by different tool structures and use-wear traces. Valle Giumentina 42-ALB is a butchery site used briefly but frequently during warmer substages occurring during an overall cold period. The “Clactonian” industry of Valle Giumentina is often considered as simple or expedient: we demonstrate its real technical complexity and its functional significance. Comparisons are made with other European sites.
    Mots-clés : Clactonian, Italy, Lithic technology, Middle Pleistocene, Stratigraphy.

  • Nomade, S., Scao, V., Guillou, H., Messager, E., Mgeladze, A., Voinchet, P., Renne, P. R., Courtin-Nomade, A., Bardintzeff, J. M., Ferring, R., et Lordkipanidze, D.0 « New 40Ar/39Ar, Unspiked K/ar And Geochemical Constraints On The Pleistocene Magmatism Of The Samtskhe-Javakheti Highlands (Republic Of Georgia) ». Quaternary International.
    Résumé : The Samtskhe-Javakheti volcanic plateau (Republic of Georgia) is the northernmost and youngest expression of the magmatism following the Arabia-Eurasia collision. Here, we present whole rock elemental and twenty-one new unspiked K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages for the volcanic sequence well exposed east of the plateau. Based on our new radio-isotopic ages, we have identified three magmatic episodes. The oldest one (2.84–1.08 Ma), corresponding to the “Javakheti plateau s.s.”, is mainly constituted of medium-K alkaline mafic lavas (basalt, basaltic trachyandesite) and of intermediate composition domes (dacite). The more recent volcanic activity has constructed an impressive N–S trending volcanic ridge (Samsari s.s.) composed of evolved rocks (medium-K dacite to rhyolite). Within this ridge, two main periods of activity could be depicted: Middle Pleistocene (439–189 ka) and Late Pleistocene (90–13 ka). The youngest activity is restricted to the northern edge of this prominent magmatic structure and linked to the Tavkvetili volcano activity. According to these young ages, this area can be considered as a potential zone of volcanic hazards. The oldest volcanic activity shaping the Javakheti plateau is distributed between major strike slip faults in pull-apart position. The emplacement of the volcanism is controlled by a localized upper crustal extension. This is particularly outlined by the N–S linear array of domes that constitutes the Samsari ridge. This volcanic structure emplaced indeed on top of two major N–S faults that have probably played a key role to control the Middle to Late Pleistocene volcanism. The new 40Ar/39Ar ages date between 2.32 and 1.54 Ma the fauna assemblage of the Tsalka paleontological site. Rocks from the Samtskhe-Javakheti volcanic plateau derived from a low degree of melting of a metasomatized lithospheric mantle source (spinel facies). Except the obsidians from the Chickiani dome, they all derived from this source and evolved following a crystallization sequence involving mainly clinopyroxene, garnet, and/or amphibole. A crustal contamination component modified the composition of the youngest products (Samsari ridge rocks). According to the geochemical signature of these rocks, it seems that the magmatism does not fit with models involving asthenospheric upwelling in this region.
    Mots-clés : Ar/Ar, Georgia, K/Ar, Lithospheric mantle source, Pleistocene, Samtskhe-Javakheti.

  • Nouet, Julius, Chevallard, Corinne, Farre, Bastien, Nehrke, Gernot, Campmas, Emilie, Stoetzel, Emmanuelle, El Hajraoui, Mohamed Abdeljalil, et Nespoulet, Roland.0 « Limpet Shells From The Aterian Level 8 Of El Harhoura 2 Cave (Témara, Morocco): Preservation State Of Crossed-Foliated Layers ». PloS one 10(9): e0137162.

  • Péan, Stéphane.0 « Mammouth Et Comportements De Subsistance À L’Épigravettien: Analyse Archéozoologique Du Secteur De La Fosse N O 7 Associée À L’Habitation N O 1 De Mezhyrich (Ukraine) ». L'Anthropologie 119(4): 417–463.

  • Péan, Stéphane, Nuzhnyi, Dmytro, et Prat, Sandrine.0 « Hommes Et Environnements Au Paléolithique Supérieur En Ukraine: Introduction Aux Recherches Interdisciplinaires Menées Sur Le Site De Mezhyrich ». L'Anthropologie 119(4): 349–354.

  • Pétillon, Jean-Marc, Langlais, Mathieu, Kuntz, Delphine, Normand, Christian, Barshay-Szmidt, Carolyn, Costamagno, Sandrine, Delmas, Magali, Laroulandie, Véronique, et Marsan, Geneviève.0 « The Human Occupation Of The Northwestern Pyrenees In The Late Glacial: New Data From The Arudy Basin, Lower Ossau Valley ». Quaternary International 364: 126–143.

  • Peretto, Carlo, Arnaud, Julie, Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo, Manzi, Giorgio, Nomade, Sébastien, Pereira, Alison, Falguères, Christophe, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique, Berto, Claudio, Sala, Benedetto, Lembo, Giuseppe, Muttillo, Brunella, Gallotti, Rosalia, Thun Hohenstein, Ursula, Vaccaro, Carmela, Coltorti, Mauro, et Arzarello, Marta.0 « A Human Deciduous Tooth And New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results From The Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site Of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy ». PLoS ONE 10(10): e0140091.
    Résumé : Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise) is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II). The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42) was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a) that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583–561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone) characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium). In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42.

  • Perrenoud, Mats, Herrel, Anthony, Borel, Antony, et Pouydebat, Emmanuelle.0 « Strategies Of Food Detection In A Captive Cathemeral Lemur, Eulemur Rubriventer ». Belg. J. Zool 145(1): 69–75.

  • Richard, M., Falguères, C., Pons-Branchu, E., Bahain, J. -J., Voinchet, P., Lebon, M., Valladas, H., Dolo, J. -M., Puaud, S., Rué, M., Daujeard, C., Moncel, M. -H., et Raynal, J. -P.0 « Contribution Of Esr/u-Series Dating To The Chronology Of Late Middle Palaeolithic Sites In The Middle Rhône Valley, Southeastern France ». Quaternary Geochronology 30, Part B: 529-534.
    Résumé : The establishment of a chronology for late Middle Palaeolithic sites on the right bank of the Rhône valley in southeastern France is important for the knowledge of Neandertal dynamics and their demise in this area. The suite of dating methods that are directly applicable to fossils is limited for this period, especially around 50 ka where radiocarbon dating is beyond its technical limits. Currently applied to Middle and Lower Pleistocene periods, the use of combined ESR/U-series dating on Upper Pleistocene samples led to new issues, such as the acquisition of an age for samples yielding low equivalent doses and low uranium content in dental tissues. The gamma dose rate measurement thus plays a key role in age calculation. Beyond the discussion on methodological issues, the present study contributes to the establishment of a chronological framework that covers the Neandertal occupations between MIS 5 and MIS 3 for this area.
    Mots-clés : Chronology, ESR/U-series, France, Middle Palaeolithic, Neandertal, Rhône valley.

  • Rios-Garaizar, Joseba, Garate Maidagan, Diego, Gómez-Olivencia, Asier, Iriarte, Eneko, Arceredillo-Alonso, Diego, Iriarte-Chiapusso, María José, Garcia-Ibaibarriaga, Naroa, García-Moreno, Alejandro, Gutierrez-Zugasti, Igor, Torres, Trinidad, Aranburu, Arantza, Arriolabengoa, Martin, Bailón, Salvador, Murelaga, Xabier, Ordiales, Amaia, Ortiz, José Eugenio, Rofes, Juan, et San Pedro, Ziortza.0 « Short-Term Neandertal Occupations In The Late Middle Pleistocene Of Arlanpe (Lemoa, Northern Iberian Peninsula) ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 14(3): 233-244.
    Résumé : The end of the Middle Pleistocene is an interesting period for investigating the transformation of Neandertal behavior from the early Middle Paleolithic to the late Middle Paleolithic. Few sites in the Iberian Peninsula have sequences corresponding to the last interglacial (MIS5) and even fewer in the Cantabrian Region. One of the best places to investigate this subject is the sequence recently excavated in Arlanpe cave. Several proxies (sedimentology, pollen, small vertebrates, malacofauna, U/Th dating) locate the first phases of this sequence between MIS7 and MIS5, with the important occurrence of temperate environmental evidence. The archaeological record describes populations with high mobility that used the cave as an occasional shelter in the first phases, or as an activity area in the later ones. The characteristics of lithic productions show a combination of Lower (Acheulean bifacial shaping) and Middle Paleolithic (Levallois Technology) traits that justifies an early Middle Paleolithic attribution.
    Mots-clés : Biface, Early Middle Paleolithic, Interglaciaire, Interglacial, Levallois, Lithic technology, Mobilité, Mobilityés, Paléolithique moyen ancien, Technique lithique.

  • Ruff, Christopher B., Puymerail, Laurent, Macchiarelli, Roberto, Sipla, Justin, et Ciochon, Russell L.0 « Structure And Composition Of The Trinil Femora: Functional And Taxonomic Implications ». Journal of human evolution 80: 147–158.

  • Salomon, Hélène, Vignaud, Colette, Lahlil, Sophia, et Menguy, Nicolas.0 « Solutrean And Magdalenian Ferruginous Rocks Heat-Treatment: Accidental And/or Deliberate Action? ». Journal of Archaeological Science 55: 100–112.

  • Singthong, Sommay, Zeitoun, Valéry, Pierret, Alain, et Forestier, Hubert.0 « An Outlook On Prehistoric Research In Laos: An Inventory And Some Perspectives ». Quaternary International.

  • Sitzia, Luca, Bertran, Pascal, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Bateman, Mark D., Hernandez, Marion, Garon, Henri, de Lafontaine, Guillaume, Mercier, Norbert, Leroyer, Chantal, Queffelec, Alain, et Voinchet, Pierre.0 « The Quaternary Coversands Of Southwest France ». Quaternary Science Reviews 124: 84-105.
    Résumé : Detailed stratigraphic analysis and numerical dating (OSL, IRSL, ESR, 14C) of Pleistocene coversands in southwest France enable the construction of a renewed chronostratigraphic framework for sand deposition. The chronological data obtained from sandsheet units testify to the development of transgressive dunefields since at least the Middle Pleistocene (MIS 10). Three main phases of accumulation occurred during the Last Glacial. The oldest one (64–42 ka) is associated with wet sandsheet facies, histic horizons and zibar-type dune fields, which reflect deposition in a context strongly influenced by the groundwater table. The Late Pleniglacial (24–14 ka) corresponds to the main phase of coversand extension in a drier context. Silty gley horizons suggest, however, local interruptions of sand drifting during GS 2.1. Lateglacial stabilization of the coversands may not have occurred before GI-1c (Allerød), which was typified by the development of cumulic arenosols. These were covered by parabolic dunes during the Younger Dryas. The variations in extent of the emerged continental shelf during the glacial–interglacial cycles may explain the uneven geographical distribution of sand deposition through time. Because of coastline retreat up to 100 km north of 45°N during the LGM lowstand, the coversands were unable to reach the northern part of the basin. Comparison with other European regions highlights stronger affinities of the French record with Portugal than with the Netherlands and Great Britain, probably because of reduced influence of permafrost.
    Mots-clés : Coversand, ESR, Middle and Late Pleistocene, OSL, Palaeosols, Southwest France.

  • Tudryn, Alina, Abdessadok, Salah, Gargani, Julien, Dambricourt Malassé, Anne, Gaillard, Claire, Moigne, Anne-Marie, Chapon Sao, Cécile, Singh, Mukesh, Bhardwaj, Vipnesh, Karir, Baldev, et Miska, Serge.0 « Stratigraphy And Paleoenvironment During The Late Pliocene At Masol Paleonto-Archeological Site (Siwalik Range, Nw India): Preliminary Results ». Comptes Rendus Palevol.
    Résumé : The Quranwala zone (Siwalik Range, NW India) is known for its Late Pliocene vertebrates. Since 2008, cut marks and stone tools have been collected from Masol. The sedimentary series belongs to the Subathu sub-basin. These sub-Himalayan deposits contain repetitive sequences (∼170 m thick) of silt/clays and sandstones corresponding to the cyclical influx of detrital material in a fluvial environment. Particular features of lithological units allow identification of the stratigraphic position of different paleonto-archeological localities. A first pale environmental reconstruction was enabled by analysis of clay and magnetic minerals. Iron minerals such as haematite and goethite indicate dominant oxic conditions during and after deposition. Clay minerals are of detrital origin, and were supplied from Himalaya by rivers. Illite, the result of physical weathering, is dominant. Smectite present in the lower part of the sequence, was probably supplied from Lesser Himalaya (Suresh et al., 2004). Its presence suggests that the studied area was still a paleo-drainage area for major river(s) during the time considered here.
    Mots-clés : Anticlinal de Chandigarh, Chandigarh anticline, clay minerals, Ligne de partage des eaux, Masol paleonto-archeological site, Minéraux argileux, Paléoenvironnement, Paleoenvironment, Pliocène, Pliocene, Site paléonto-archéologique de Mazol, Sous-bassin de Subathu, Subathu sub-basin, Upper Siwalik, Water divideés.

  • Vialou, Denis.0 « Des Mammouths Et Des Hommes ». L'Anthropologie 119(4): 355–363.

  • Voinchet, P., Toyoda, S., Falguères, C., Hernandez, Marion, Tissoux, H., Moreno, D., et Bahain, J.-J.0 « Evaluation Of Esr Residual Dose In Quartz Modern Samples, An Investigation On Environmental Dependence ». Quaternary Geochronology.

  • Voisin, Jean-Luc, Ropars, Mickael, et Thomazeau, Hervé.0 « Anatomical Evidence For A Uniquely Positioned Suprascapular Foramen ». Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: 1–4.

  • Wei, Guangbiao, Huang, Wanbo, Boëda, Eric, Forestier, Hubert, He, Cunding, Chen, Shaokun, Zhao, Jianxin, Li, Yinghua, Hou, Yamei, Pang, Libo, et Wu, Yan.0 « Recent Discovery Of A Unique Paleolithic Industry From The Yumidong Cave Site In The Three Gorges Region Of Yangtze River, Southwest China ». Quaternary International.
    Résumé : The Three Gorges of Yangtze River, southwest China, abundant in human and faunal fossils, and lithic artifacts, represents an important site complex for understanding hominin dispersion and adaptations during the Pleistocene. The Yumidong Cave is a newly-discovered Paleolithic site in this region which yielded a large number of animal fossils and lithic artifacts. U–Th dating in conjunction with biostratigraphic analysis indicated that the archaeological remains were deposited during a long sequence from ca. 400 to 8 ka (Middle Pleistocene to Holocene). Lithic technological analysis indicated an original material shaped on massive limestone blocks with chaîne opératoire consisted of selection, shaping and retouching. The volumetric structures of selected blanks are regrouped into three categories: structures with bevel(s), trihedral structure and convergent ones. The outline of cutting-edge is predonimated by denticulate ones, followed by saw-like ones, rostrum, convergent with a denticulate edge and beaked ones. Despite showing nothing in common with Europe, Africa, the Near East and even the Indian Subcontinent and northern China, the lithic assemblage of the Yumidong Cave exhibits a strong coherence and presents more similarity to mainland Southeast Asia with heavy, angular and massive stone tools made on pebble, cobble and without the Levallois, Discoid, and blade/bladelet phenomenon. The lithic assemblage of Yumidong Cave may represent material clues of a potential local technological center of origin in unique technical world of Central-South China and its uniqueness would be understandable as the result of a successful adaptation of hominids to a specific environment. Yumidong lithic material deconstructs the existing paradigm for a long period of time and presents new ideas and new facts for the technic evolution in South China.
    Mots-clés : China, Cognition, Lithic technology, Middle to Late Pleistocene, Paleolithic site, Three Gorges.

  • Zanolli, Clément, Dean, Christopher, Rook, Lorenzo, Bondioli, Luca, Mazurier, Arnaud, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « Enamel Thickness And Enamel Growth In Oreopithecus: Combining Microtomographic And Histological Evidence ». Comptes Rendus Palevol.

  • Zanolli, Clément, Grine, Frederick E., Kullmer, Ottmar, Schrenk, Friedemann, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « The Early Pleistocene Deciduous Hominid Molar Fs-72 From The Sangiran Dome Of Java, Indonesia: A Taxonomic Reappraisal Based On Its Comparative Endostructural Characterization ». American Journal of Physical Anthropology 157(4): 666-674.
    Résumé : Objectives: Among the ten fossil hominid deciduous teeth reported so far from the Pleistocene sediments of the Sangiran Dome of Java are two isolated lower second molars: specimens PCG.2 from the Kabuh Formation and FS-72 from the Pucangan Formation. While PCG.2 appears to be certainly attributable to Homo erectus, FS-72 is somewhat more problematic, even though it is commonly listed within the Indonesian H. erectus hypodigm. Largely because of its large size, it was originally attributed to Meganthropus paleojavanicus. Subsequent study highlighted a set of metric and nonmetric crown features also found in Australopith and African early Homo (notably H. habilis) homologues. An additional problem with the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from the Pleistocene of Java is the presence of Pongo in these same deposits. Methods: To assess the taxonomic affinity of FS-72, we investigated its inner structure (tissue proportions and enamel-dentine junction morphology) by using techniques of 2–3D virtual imaging coupled with geometric morphometric analyses. Results: The results show that FS-72 has thinner enamel compared to fossil and recent humans and that its topographic repartition more closely follows the pongine pattern. It also exhibits a Pongo-like elongated morphology of the enamel-dentine junction, with proportionally lower and mesiodistally spaced dentine horns. Conclusions: Given the morphological and metric similarities between fossil orangutan and H. erectus molars, we tested the hypothesis that its internal morphology more closely resembles the patterns evinced by PCG.2 and modern humans than Pongo. Accordingly, we consider that FS-72 more likely represents a dm2 of Pongo rather than Homo. Am J Phys Anthropol 157:666–674, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Mots-clés : deciduous molar FS-72, Early Pleistocene, hominid paleobiodiversity, Internal structure, Sangiran Dome.
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2014 : publications dans des revues à comité de lecture

  • Amato, Vincenzo, Aucelli, Pietro P. C., Cesarano, Massimo, Jicha, Brian, Lebreton, Vincent, Orain, Ronan, Pappone, Gerardo, Petrosino, Paola, et Russo Ermolli, Elda.0 « Quaternary Evolution Of The Largest Intermontane Basin Of The Molise Apennine (Central-Southern Italy) ». Rendiconti Lincei 25(S2): 197-216.
    Résumé : An integrated morpho-stratigraphic approach has been used to reconstruct the Quaternary history of the Boiano basin, the largest tectonic depression of the Molise Apennine (Italy). Lacustrine, marshy and fluvial environments alternate all along the investigated infilling succession as a response to tectonic subsidence, volcaniclastic inputs and climate changes, from ca. 500 ka. Two tephra layers 40Ar/39Ar have been dated and referred to the Middle Pleistocene explosive activity of the Roccamonfina volcano, while a younger tephra layer has been related to the Campi Flegrei Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (ca. 15 ka). Pollen analysis has highlighted the vegetation changes related to the 100 ka glacial–interglacial cyclicity, between MIS 13 and 2. From 500 to 350 ka, a strong subsidence led to lacustrine deposition, while between 350 and 250 ka, a decrease in subsidence rates caused the transition to fluvial–marshy conditions and, at a later stage, to floodplain environments. The analysis of palaeosurfaces allowed the geomorphological evolution of the basin to be reconstructed since the Middle Pleistocene and the morpho-sedimentary events to be related to the SW-NE extensional tectonics affecting this sector of the central-southern Apennine. This tectonic behavior is also testified by the differential subsidence rates recorded within the basin through the analysis of two deep cores drilled in the center of the Boiano town.

  • Antoine, P., Moncel, M.-H., Locht, J.-L., Limondin-Lozouet, N., Auguste, P., Stoetzel, E., Dabkowski, J., Voinchet, P., Bahain, J.-J., et Falgueres, C.0 « Dating The Earliest Human Occupation Of Western Europe: New Evidence From The Fluvial Terrace System Of The Somme Basin (Northern France) ». Quaternary International.

  • Anvari, Zohreh, Berillon, Gilles, Asgari Khaneghah, Asghar, Grimaud-Herve, Dominique, Moulin, Valérie, et Nicolas, Guillaume.0 « Kinematics And Spatiotemporal Parameters Of Infant-Carrying In Olive Baboons ». American journal of physical anthropology 155(3): 392–404.

  • Arzarello, Marta, Peretto, Carlo, et Moncel, Marie-Hélène.0 « The Pirro Nord Site (Apricena, Fg, Southern Italy) In The Context Of The First European Peopling: Convergences And Divergences ». Quaternary International.

  • Assefa, Zelalem, Pleurdeau, David, Duquesnoy, Frederique, Hovers, Erella, Pearson, Osbjorn, Asrat, Asfawossen, T/Tsion, Constantinos, et Lam, Yin Man.0 « Survey And Explorations Of Caves In Southeastern Ethiopia: Middle Stone Age And Later Stone Age Archaeology And Holocene Rock Art ». Quaternary International 343: 136–147.
    Résumé : The horn of Africa provides the setting for the evolution of early modern humans and their dispersal out of Africa as well as for the entry, many thousands of years later, of pastoralists who brought Near Eastern and, later, South Asian livestock into Africa. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the late Upper Pleistocene archaeological record of the horn of Africa, mainly due to the paucity of well-stratified sites from the period. The discovery in southeastern Ethiopia of a number of caves with rich Upper Pleistocene and Holocene archaeological deposits, many of which also had rock art depicting domestic animals, offers an unprecedented opportunity for exploring the later prehistory of the region. In 2007, 2008 our survey documented twenty-one cave sites and shelters with evidence of cultural deposits, including Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) stone artifacts, faunal remains, and rock art. Active and fossil speleothems, important for paleoclimatic reconstructions and chronology, were found from two other caves in eastern and western Harerghe. Test excavations were conducted at three sites, with abundant archaeological material documented from stratified deposits at two of these sites – Gilbo Tate and Goda Buticha. The latter is a subject of another paper in this volume. Rock art was recorded at eighteen sites, three of which (in western Harerghe) had not previously been documented. At many of the sites, much of the art is faded and in a vulnerable state, and continued efforts to document and conserve this art are urgently needed.

  • Baena, Javier, Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Cuartero, Felipe, Navarro, M. Gema Chacón, et Rubio, Daniel.0 « Late Middle Pleistocene Genesis Of Neanderthal Technology In Western Europe: The Case Of Payre Site (South-East France) ». Quaternary International.

  • Balzeau, Antoine, Gilissen, Emmanuel, Holloway, Ralph L., Prima, Sylvain, et Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique.0 « Variations In Size, Shape And Asymmetries Of The Third Frontal Convolution In Hominids: Paleoneurological Implications For Hominin Evolution And The Origin Of Language ». Journal of human evolution 76: 116–128.

  • Beck, L., Rousselière, H., Castaing, J., Duran, A., Lebon, M., Moignard, B., et Plassard, F.0 « First Use Of Portable System Coupling X-Ray Diffraction And X-Ray Fluorescence For In-Situ Analysis Of Prehistoric Rock Art ». Talanta 129: 459–464.

  • Been, Ella, Gómez-Olivencia, Asier, et Kramer, Patricia A.0 « Brief Communication: Lumbar Lordosis In Extinct Hominins: Implications Of The Pelvic Incidence ». American Journal of Physical Anthropology 154(2): 307-314.
    Résumé : Recently, interest has peaked regarding the posture of extinct hominins. Here, we present a new method of reconstructing lordosis angles of extinct hominin specimens based on pelvic morphology, more specifically the orientation of the sacrum in relation to the acetabulum (pelvic incidence). Two regression models based on the correlation between pelvic incidence and lordosis angle in living hominoids have been developed. The mean values of the calculated lordosis angles based on these models are 36°−45° for australopithecines, 45°−47° for Homo erectus, 27°−34° for the Neandertals and the Sima de los Huesos hominins, and 49°−51° for fossil H. sapiens. The newly calculated lordosis values are consistent with previously published values of extinct hominins (Been et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 147 (2012) 64–77). If the mean values of the present nonhuman hominoids are representative of the pelvic and lumbar morphology of the last common ancestor between humans and nonhuman hominoids, then both pelvic incidence and lordosis angle dramatically increased during hominin evolution from 27° ± 5 to 22° ± 3 (respectively) in nonhuman hominoids to 54° ± 10 and 51° ± 11 in modern humans. This change to a more human-like configuration appeared early in the hominin evolution as the pelvis and spines of both australopithecines and H. erectus show a higher pelvic incidence and lordosis angle than nonhuman hominoids. The Sima de los Huesos hominins and Neandertals show a derived configuration with a low pelvic incidence and lordosis angle. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:307–314, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Mots-clés : Australopithecus sediba, H. erectus, Neandertal, posture, spine.

  • Borel, Antony, Ollé, Andreu, Vergès, Josep Maria, et Sala, Robert.0 « Scanning Electron And Optical Light Microscopy: Two Complementary Approaches For The Understanding And Interpretation Of Usewear And Residues On Stone Tools ». Journal of Archaeological Science 48: 46–59.

  • Brasseur, Boris, Sémah, François, Sémah, Anne-Marie, et Djubiantono, Tony.0 « Pedo-Sedimentary Dynamics Of The Sangiran Dome Hominid Bearing Layers (Early To Middle Pleistocene, Central Java, Indonesia): A Palaeopedological Approach For Reconstructing ‘Pithecanthropus’(Javanese< I> Homo Erectus</i>) Palaeoenvironment ». Quaternary International.

  • Cauche, Dominique, Khatib, Samir, Desclaux, Emmanuel, et Combaud, Laurent.0 « Découverte D’Une Industrie Du Paléolithique Inférieur En Bordure De La Commune De Nice, Au Vallon Obscur À Saint-Isidore ». L'Anthropologie 118(4): 437–448.

  • Charlier, Philippe, Froesch, Philippe, Balzeau, Antoine, et Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle.0 « 3-Dimensional Brain Surface Reconstruction From Dried Skull: Interest For Retrospective Diagnosis In Forensic Anthropology. ». The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology 35(4): 283–284.

  • Corny, Julien, et Détroit, Florent.0 « Technical Note: Anatomic Identification Of Isolated Modern Human Molars: Testing Procrustes Aligned Outlines As A Standardization Procedure For Elliptic Fourier Analysis ». American Journal of Physical Anthropology 153(2): 314-322.
    Résumé : The determination of the precise position of permanent first and second modern human molars, following standard tooth identification criteria, is often difficult because of their morphological similarities. Here, we proposed to evaluate the suitability of two-dimensional crown contour shape analysis in achieving this objective. The method was tested separately on 180 first and second maxillary molars (UM) and 180 first and second mandibular molars (LM) securely identified (in anatomical position in their sockets). Generalized Procrustes superimposition is used to normalize the outlines prior to applying elliptic Fourier analyses (“EFAproc” method). Reliability and effectiveness of this morphometric procedure was evaluated by comparing the results obtained for the same dataset with four other morphometric methods of contour analysis. Cross-validated (“leave one individual out”) percentages of misclassification yielded by linear discriminant analyses were used for determining the anatomic position of modern human molars. The percentages of misclassifications obtained from every method of contour analysis were low (1.67% to 3.33% for the UM, 5.56% to 6.67% for the LM) indicating the high suitability of crown contour analyses in correctly identifying molars. A reliable protocol, based on predictive linear discriminant analyses, was then proposed for identification of isolated molars. In addition, our results confirmed that the EFAproc method is suitable for normalizing outlines prior to undertaking elliptic Fourier analyses, especially in the case of nearly circular outlines: it obtained better classification than the classic method of normalization of Fourier descriptors for UM and provided also some advantages over the three landmarks-based methods tested here. Am J Phys Anthropol 153:314–322, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Mots-clés : contour shape analysis, geometric morphometrics, normalization, tooth recognition.

  • Crépin, Laurent, Péan, Stéphane, et Lázničková-Galetová, Martina.0 « Comportements De Subsistance Au Paléolithique Supérieur En Crimée: Analyse Archéozoologique Des Couches 6-2, 6-1 Et 5-2 De Buran-Kaya Iii ». L'Anthropologie 118(5): 584–598.

  • Daujeard, Camille, Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Fiore, Ivana, Tagliacozzo, Antonio, Bindon, Peter, et Raynal, Jean-Paul.0 « Middle Paleolithic Bone Retouchers In Southeastern France: Variability And Functionality ». Quaternary International 326–327: 492-518.
    Résumé : Diversity in the used bone found in the European Middle Paleolithic is very low, but bone retouchers are the most abundant and the most common. This paper focuses on the detailed study of numerous bone retouchers found in nine Middle Paleolithic sites bordering the French Massif Central in Southeastern France. Multidisciplinary and recent data on chronology and biostratigraphy on the archaeological sequences and the great number of bone retouchers have permitted a meaningful comparative regional analysis. Their occurrences and characteristics allow us to speculate about the skills and choices of the knappers using these bone tools, for instance deliberate selection or opportunistic choices within the butchery remains, as well as commenting on the length of time and the way that sites were occupied. Furthermore, in most of the studied layers we observed a strong disparity between the abundance of bone retouchers and the number of retouched lithic products presents, raising questions about their function and their role within the stone tool reduction sequence (primary retouching, resharpening stone tool cutting-edges, producing marginal and micro-retouch or in some cases semi-Quina retouch). Results are compared with a large European database, allowing us to discuss the characteristics of the bone retouchers in the Neanderthal world.

  • Daver, G., Détroit, Florent, Grimaud-Hervé, D., Berillon, G., et Prat, S.0 « Fossil Hominins, Quadrupedal Primates And The Origin Of Human Bipedalism: A 3D Geometric Morphometric Analysis Of The Primate Hamate ». BMSAP: 1-8.
    Résumé : This note illustrates the value of studying nonhuman primates, especially quadrupedal primates, in order to investigate the origins of human bipedalism. Two distinct hypotheses postulate that hominins and African great apes share a common ancestor predominantly engaged in specialized forms of locomotion, i.e., arboreal orthogrady (climbing or arboreal bipedalism) on the one hand and semiterrestrial locomotion (which includes climbing and quadrupedalism) on the other. Both hypotheses are supported by analysis of the wrist morphology of Pliocene hominins, and both have recently been challenged by a third hypothesis based on the study of Ardipithecus ramidus wrist morphology, which has shown general affinities between the latter hominin and quadrupedal primates. However, all three interpretations rely on rather limited knowledge of the variability of wrist bones in quadrupedal primates. Here, we propose to address the question of the origins of human bipedalism by means of a threedimensional analysis of a carpal bone, the hamate, whose morphology appears to vary according to the locomotor behaviour of primates. We compared the original specimens of Pliocene hominins (Australopithecus) with a large sample of non-human primates, including various quadrupedal anthropoids. Our results confirm that, on the one hand, the shape of the hamate in primates varies significantly according to their locomotor behaviour and, on the other hand, that the hypothesis of the semiterrestrial origin of human bipedalism can be rejected. The affinities between Pliocene hominins and most of extant quadrupedal primates indicate that the hands of early hominins partly retained a morphology inherited from a generalist quadrupedal ancestor, which concurs with the hypothesis recently proposed from the hand bones of Ar. ramidus.
    Mots-clés : 3D geometric morphometrics, Évolution, bipédie, Bipedalism, Carpals, Carpiens, Demography, Evolution, Evolutionary Biology, Human genetics, Morphométrie géométrique 3D, Quadrupédie, Quadrupedalism.

  • Drucker, Dorothée G., Bocherens, Hervé, et Péan, Stéphane.0 « Isotopes Stables (13 C, 15 N) Du Collagène Des Mammouths De Mezhyrich (Epigravettien, Ukraine): Implications Paléoécologiques ». L'Anthropologie 118(5): 504–517.

  • El Albani, Abderrazak, Bengtson, Stefan, Canfield, Donald E., Riboulleau, Armelle, Rollion Bard, Claire, Macchiarelli, Roberto, Ngombi Pemba, Lauriss, Hammarlund, Emma, Meunier, Alain, Moubiya Mouele, Idalina, Benzerara, Karim, Bernard, Sylvain, Boulvais, Philippe, Chaussidon, Marc, Cesari, Christian, Fontaine, Claude, Chi-Fru, Ernest, Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel, Gauthier-Lafaye, François, Mazurier, Arnaud, Pierson-Wickmann, Anne Catherine, Rouxel, Olivier, Trentesaux, Alain, Vecoli, Marco, Versteegh, Gerard J. M., White, Lee, Whitehouse, Martin, et Bekker, Andrey.0 « The 2.1 Ga Old Francevillian Biota: Biogenicity, Taphonomy And Biodiversity ». PLoS ONE 9(6): e99438.
    Résumé : The Paleoproterozoic Era witnessed crucial steps in the evolution of Earth's surface environments following the first appreciable rise of free atmospheric oxygen concentrations ∼2.3 to 2.1 Ga ago, and concomitant shallow ocean oxygenation. While most sedimentary successions deposited during this time interval have experienced thermal overprinting from burial diagenesis and metamorphism, the ca. 2.1 Ga black shales of the Francevillian B Formation (FB2) cropping out in southeastern Gabon have not. The Francevillian Formation contains centimeter-sized structures interpreted as organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms living in an oxygenated marine ecosystem. Here, new material from the FB2 black shales is presented and analyzed to further explore its biogenicity and taphonomy. Our extended record comprises variably sized, shaped, and structured pyritized macrofossils of lobate, elongated, and rod-shaped morphologies as well as abundant non-pyritized disk-shaped macrofossils and organic-walled acritarchs. Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis. The emergence of this biota follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, which is consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life.

  • El Amrani El Hassani, Iz-Eddine, Nespoulet, Roland, Debenath, André, Morala, André, et El Hajraoui, Mohamed Abdeljalil.0 « Découverte De Témoins D’Occupations Préhistoriques En Grottes Dans La Coulée Basaltique Plio-Quaternaire De La Région D’Oulmès (Maroc Central) ». Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat, section Sciences de la Terre 35.

  • Forestier, Hubert, Sophady, Heng, Puaud, Simon, Mourer, Roland, Billault, Laurence, Philippe, Marc, et Zeitoun, Valéry.0 « New Evidence Of Old Stone Tools From The Mekong Terraces, Cambodia ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 13(2): 109-120.
    Résumé : The study of prehistoric sites with lithic remains indicates that the occupation of continental Asia, notably India and China, seems to have taken place earlier than previously thought. However, this Early Pleistocene human dispersal out of Africa remains debatable for the Southeast of Asia, in spite of the discovery of original lithic assemblages on the Mekong terraces dated to the very beginning of the Middle Pleistocene in the centre of Cambodia, by Saurin and Carbonnel in the 1960–1970s. Although this fundamental lithic material has become a reference, it has not been subjected to renewed study of these artefacts over the past decades, and it is thus not possible, for the moment, to attribute it with certainty to a particular culture. In this paper, we present an analysis of the raw materials and a techno-typological study of a similar series of prehistoric tools gathered by one of us in order to bring to light new elements concerning the first Palaeolithic occupation of this region of the world. D’après l’étude des sites préhistoriques qui ont livré des outils lithiques, le peuplement de l’Asie semble être plus ancien que ce qui était précédemment admis, du moins en Inde ou en Chine. Ce peuplement ancien reste, cependant, une question en suspens pour le Sud-est asiatique continental, alors que des hommes fossiles et outils lithiques anciens sont présents en Indonésie à une période très reculée. La découverte d’assemblages lithiques originaux par Saurin et Carbonnel dans les années 1960–1970 sur les terrasses du Mékong au centre du Cambodge, datées du début du Pléistocène, a servi de point de référence sans que ce matériel lithique ne soit réétudié depuis. En l’absence d’étude complète de ce matériel, il n’est pas permis de conclure définitivement sur sa nature ou son faciès culturel. Nous présentons ici une analyse des matières premières et une étude techno-fonctionnelle d’une série d’outils préhistoriques, trouvée par l’un d’entre nous (R.M.) dans le même contexte que celui décrit par Saurin, afin d’apporter de nouveaux éléments de réflexion quant aux premiers peuplements de cette région du monde.
    Mots-clés : Ancient Palaeolithic, Asie du Sud-Est, Cobble tools, Galets, Paléolithique ancien, Préhistoire, Prehistory, Southeast Asia.

  • Gómez-Olivencia, Asier, Arceredillo, Diego, Álvarez-Lao, Diego J., Garate, Diego, San Pedro, Ziortza, Castaños, Pedro, et Rios-Garaizar, Joseba.0 « New Evidence For The Presence Of Reindeer (Rangifer Tarandus) On The Iberian Peninsula In The Pleistocene: An Archaeopalaeontological And Chronological Reassessment ». Boreas 43(2): 286-308.
    Résumé : Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) populations reached the Iberian Peninsula during the end of the Middle Pleistocene and there are numerous examples of this species from Late Pleistocene Mousterian and Upper Palaeolithic sites. In this paper, new evidence of reindeer in the east Cantabrian region is presented that further supports the timing of this species’ first appearance, and previous assessments are updated. To date, the presence of this species has been identified at 55 sites in the Iberian Peninsula, nearly as many as those of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) combined. Most of the sites with presence of reindeer (50) are located in the Cantabrian region with a clear increase in the density of sites and remains towards the Pyrenees. The remaining five sites with evidence of reindeer are located on the other side of the Pyrenees in the NW corner of Catalonia. In contrast, archaeological evidence of reindeer in the form of art (both parietal and portable) is more scarce and scattered. Evidence for the representation of these animals has been found outside the northern fringe of the Iberian Peninsula, which could reflect either long-distance cultural communication or the movement of human groups.

  • Heuzé, Yann, et Balzeau, Antoine.0 « Asymmetry Of The Midfacial Skeleton Of Eastern Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla Beringei Graueri) And Potential Association With Frontal Lobe Asymmetries ». Journal of human evolution 74: 123–129.

  • Ingicco, T., Amano, N., Ochoa, Janine, et Détroit, F.0 « An Allometric Study Of Macaca Fascicularis From The Late Pleistocene Deposits At The Ille Site (Philippines): A Possible Model For Southeast Asian Dwarf Hominins ». BMSAP 26(3-4): 147–153.
    Résumé : Recent discoveries of taxonomically challenging Southeast Asian dwarf hominins from Liang Bua in Indonesia and the Callao Cave in the Philippines have enabled us to investigate the general tendency towards dwarfism or gigantism already observed in endemic insular animals. One current hypothesis suggests that the pygmy human phenotype is the result of evolutionary selection in rainforest environments. In this paper we test the hypothesis that dwarfism is a response to forest habitats, using macaque (Macaca fascicularis) fossils from the well-stratified archaeological sequence at the Ille site in the Philippines. Our results show that changes in size may affect general conformations in forested environments, and therefore support the hypothesis put forward on the evolution of pygmy hominin populations in tropical rainforest habitats.
    Mots-clés : Asie du Sud-Est insulaire, Évolution humaine, Demography, Elliptic Fourier, Evolutionary Biology, Forêt tropicale humide, Fourier elliptique, Hominin evolution, Human genetics, Insular and Environmental dwarfism, Nanisme insulaire et environnemental, Non-human primates, Primates non-humains, Rainforest, Southeast Asian insularity.

  • Ingicco, Thomas, de Vos, John, et Huffman, O. Frank.0 « The Oldest Gibbon Fossil (Hylobatidae) From Insular Southeast Asia: Evidence From Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/middle Pleistocene ». PLoS ONE 9(6): e99531.
    Résumé : A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891–1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here.

  • Jarman, David, Calvet, Marc, Corominas, Jordi, Delmas, Magali, et Gunnell, Yanni.0 « Large-Scale Rock Slope Failures In The Eastern Pyrenees: Identifying A Sparse But Significant Population In Paraglacial And Parafluvial Contexts ». Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography 96(3): 357–391.

  • Lambert, A., Puymerail, L., Chaumoitre, K., et Schmitt, A.0 « Analyse Fonctionnelle Des Adaptations Osseuses Du Squelette Post Crânien Au Néolithique Final En Provence ». BMSAP 26(1-2): 67-77.
    Résumé : Afin de définir les caractéristiques biomécaniques de la population issue de l’hypogée des Boileau, un ensemble funéraire collectif du Néolithique final vauclusien, nos travaux se sont orientés vers la géométrie de section. Cet outil permet d’estimer la capacité de l’os à résister à des contraintes mécaniques en mesurant les propriétés géométriques des sections transverses diaphysaires. Il permet ainsi d’esquisser les modalités d’exécution des activités des populations passées; les modèles d’activités. Les paramètres des sections humérales et fémorales ont été calculés pour 61 individus (40 femmes et 21 hommes) par tomographie médicale. Aucun dimorphisme sexuel biomécanique lié à l’asymétrie bilatérale ou aux dimensions des membres n’a été mis en évidence pour l’humérus suggérant une pratique préférentielle d’activités bilatérales et des modalités d’exécution des activités semblables entre les sexes. En revanche, la robustesse fémorale masculine indique une pratique d’activités physiques plus intenses que celle des femmes, laissant envisager une éventuelle division sexuelle des tâches impliquant le membre inférieur. Les types de mouvements du fémur semblent être équivalents entre les sexes.
    Mots-clés : Biomécanique, Biomechanics, computed tomography, Cross-sectional geometric properties, Demography, Evolutionary Biology, Fémur, Femur, Human genetics, Humérus, Humerus, Late Neolithic, Néolithique Final, Propriétés géométriques de section, Provence, Tomographie médicale.

  • Lázničková-Galetová, Martina.0 « The Phenomenon Of Gravettian Necklaces–Mammoth Ivory Necklaces From Dolní Věstonice I (Moravia, Czech Republic) ». Quaternary International 359: 229–239.

  • Le Bourdonnec, F.-X., D’Anna, A., Poupeau, G., Lugliè, C., Bellot-Gurlet, L., Tramoni, P., et Marchesi, H.0 « Obsidians Artefacts From Renaghju (Corsica Island) And The Early Neolithic Circulation Of Obsidian In The Western Mediterranean ». Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences: 1-22.
    Résumé : The site of Renaghju has the largest excavated area of any Neolithic site on the island of Corsica (Western Mediterranean). Its lowest layer, exposed over a few hundred meters square contained a rich Early Neolithic Cardial ceramic and lithic industry dated by 14C to the second half of the 6th millennium BC. Obsidian, a raw material exogenous to the island, comprises ca. 15 % of the chipped stone industry. The provenance of 622 obsidian artefacts (84 % of the total assemblage) was determined through a combination of visual characterization, together with noninvasive particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) and energy dispersion spectrometer of a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS) on millimeter-sized polished fragments. This is, by far, the largest sample of obsidian artefacts analyzed from a Corsican Neolithic site. All but one of the artefacts was found to be made of obsidian from sources associated with the volcanic complex of Monte Arci on the nearby island of Sardinia. Obsidian from each of the three major Monte Arci sources exploited during the Neolithic were identified, with a predominance of obsidians of the SA and SB2 types over the SC type. Only one artefact was shown to be made of obsidian from another source, namely, that on the island of Palmarola, in the Pontine Archipelago. The Monte Arci obsidian were procured in the form of small nodules that were then reduced on site, the knappers primarily producing flakes using an expedient and intensive technology. This tradition involved the production of very few types of formal implements, including geometrics and carving/boring tools, forms that are typical of the Tyrrhenian Cardial Early Neolithic. This is the earliest Neolithic culture on Corsica, whose appearance coincides with a major colonization of both Corsica and Sardinia. The significant presence of Sardinian obsidians in the southwestern Corsican site of Renaghju attests to early contacts between groups inhabiting these islands from the 6th millennium BC, while the Palmarola obsidian indicates occasional contacts with groups living on the Italian Peninsula. Alternatively, this “exotic” raw material’s presence at Renaghju might be viewed as the result of frequent and intensive movements of the first colonists in the Tyrrhenian area.
    Mots-clés : Anthropology, Archaeology, Chemistry/Food Science, general, Corsica, Early Cardial Neolithic, Earth Sciences, general, Geography (general), Life Sciences, general, Obsidian provenance, PIXE, Renaghju, SEM-EDS.

  • Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier, Poupeau, Gérard, Boussofara, Ridha, Dubernet, Stéphan, Moretto, Philippe, Compin, Matthieu, et Mulazzani, Simone.0 « Obsidians From The Kerkennah Islands (Eastern Tunisia) And The Pixe Elemental Compositions Of The Mediterranean Peralkaline Obsidians ». Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms.
    Résumé : The provenance of 37 obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (central Mediterranean Sea) was determined by PIXE. It is shown that they came from the two main obsidian sources, Balata dei Turchi and Lago di Venere, of the Pantelleria Island. A comparison of the PIXE elemental composition of geological vs. archaeological obsidians of central and western Mediterranean shows that their sources present elemental compositions homogeneous enough to make possible sourcing studies. However, a comparison between the distributions of geological and archaeological obsidians chemistry shows that the PIXE source qualifications do not cover yet the whole of their internal variations.
    Mots-clés : Kerkennah, Obsidian, PIXE, Provenance.

  • Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier, Poupeau, Gérard, Lorenzi, Françoise, Machut, Pierre, et Sicurani, Jean.0 « Typologie Et Provenance De L’Obsidienne Du Site Néolithique D’A Guaita (Nw Cap Corse, Corse, France) ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 13(4): 317-331.
    Résumé : Résumé La provenance d’une grande partie des obsidiennes du site néolithique corse d’A Guaita a été déterminée pour ses trois niveaux chronoculturels, soit entre la seconde moitié du VIe et le début du IVe millénaires avant notre ère. Les compositions élémentaires de 140 échantillons ont été obtenues par spectrométrie de dispersion en énergie en microscopie électronique à balayage (SEM–EDS) ou/et par analyse sous faisceau d’ions (PIXE). Cent trente-huit pièces proviennent de Sardaigne et deux de l’île de Palmarola. Ces résultats confirment la quasi-exclusivité de l’obsidienne sarde en Corse, et l’étendent à son extrémité nord. Les trois principaux types sardes SA, SB2 et SC sont représentés, avec une prédominance de SB2 et SC. La présence de deux obsidiennes venant de Palmarola suggère des contacts occasionnels avec la péninsule italienne dès le VIe millénaire, en accord avec les données sur la céramique. Abstract The provenance of a large fraction of the obsidians from the Neolithic site of A Guaita was determined for its three chronocultural layers, between the second half of the 6th millennium and the beginning of the 4th millennium. The elemental composition of 140 samples was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM–EDS) and/or ion beam analysis (PIXE). One hundred and thirty-eight obsidians were found to come from Sardinia and the remaining two from Palmarola Island. This result confirms the almost unique presence of Sardinian obsidians in Corsica and extends this observation to the northern end of the island. The three main Sardinian obsidian types, SA, SB2, and SC, are represented at A Guaita, with a predominance of SB2 and SC. The occurrence of two obsidians from Palmarola suggests that occasional contacts with the Italian Peninsula were in effect from the 6th millennium, in agreement with previous data from ceramics.
    Mots-clés : A Guaita, A Guaita, Corse, Corsica, Néolithique, Neolithic, Obsidian, Obsidienne, PIXE, Provenance, SEM–EDS, Typologie, Typology.

  • Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier, Poupeau, Gérard, Lorenzi, Françoise, Machut, Pierre, et Sicurani, Jean.0 « Corrigendum To “Typologie Et Provenance De L’Obsidienne Du Site Néolithique D’A Guaita (Nw Cap Corse, Corse, France)”[Cr Palevol 13 (4)(2014) 317–332] ». Comptes rendus-Palevol 6(13): 543.

  • Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth, Alçiçek, M. Cihat, Rochette, Pierre, Khatib, Samir, Vialet, Amélie, Boulbes, Nicolas, Bourlès, Didier L., Demory, François, Guipert, Gaspard, Mayda, Serdar, Titov, Vadim V., Vidal, Laurence, et de Lumley, Henry.0 « Dating The Homo Erectus Bearing Travertine From Kocabaş (Denizli, Turkey) At At Least 1.1 Ma ». Earth and Planetary Science Letters 390: 8-18.
    Résumé : Since its discovery within a travertine quarry, the fragmentary cranium of the only known Turkish Homo erectus , the Kocabaş hominid, has led to conflicting biochronological estimations. First estimated to be ∼500 ka∼500 ka old, the partial skull presents a combination of archaic and evolved features that puts it as an intermediate specimen between the Dmanisi fossils (Homo georgicus ) and the Chinese Zhoukoudian skulls (Homo erectus ) respectively dated to 1.8 to ∼0.8 Ma∼0.8 Ma. Here we present a multidisciplinary study combining sedimentological, paleontological and paleoanthropological observations together with cosmogenic nuclide concentration and paleomagnetic measurements to provide an absolute chronological framework for the Upper fossiliferous Travertine unit where the Kocabaş hominid and fauna were discovered. The 26Al/10Be burial ages determined on pebbles from conglomeratic levels framing the Upper fossiliferous Travertine unit, which exhibits an inverse polarity, constrains its deposition to before the Cobb Mountain sub-chron, that is between 1.22 and ∼1.5 Ma∼1.5 Ma. The alternative match of the normal polarity recorded above the travertine with the Jaramillo subchron (lower limit 1.07 Ma) may also be marginally compatible with cosmogenic nuclides interpretation, thus the proposed minimum age of 1.1 Ma for the end of massive travertine deposition. The actual age of the fossils is likely to be in the 1.1–1.3 Ma range. This absolute date is in close agreement with the paleoanthropological conclusions based on morphometric comparisons implying that Kocabaş hominid belongs to the Homo erectus s.l. group that includes Chinese and African fossils, and is different from Middle and Upper Pleistocene specimens. Furthermore, this date is confirmed by the large mammal assemblage, typical of the late Villafranchian. Because it attests to the antiquity of human occupation of the Anatolian Peninsula and one of the waves of settlements out of Africa, this work challenges the current knowledge of the Homo erectus dispersal over Eurasia.
    Mots-clés : Burial dating, Cosmogenic nuclide, Homo erectus, Paleomagnetism, Villafranchian.

  • Lebon, M., Zazzo, A., et Reiche, I.0 « Screening In Situ Bone And Teeth Preservation By Atr-Ftir Mapping ». Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
    Résumé : Bones and teeth are highly hierarchically structured and hererogeneous materials, and post mortem processes can reinforce this heterogeneity. It is therefore important to consider this heterogeneity to better understand diagenetic processes. In this study, ATR-FTIR mapping was applied to several heated and un-heated archaeological samples, and to similar modern references in order to test the potential of this method. ATR-FTIR mapping can provide spatially resolved information on alteration state of mineral and organic matter. This technique allowed to describe the spatial distribution of organic and mineral matter preservation in unheated Palaeolithic bones (Bize-Tournal, France) characterized by a better preservation in the centre of the cortical bone. Spatial variations in the chemical composition of an archaeological heated bone (Abri Pataud, France) compared to a modern reference suggested taphonomical uptake of carbonate in the most external part. This pattern could correspond to a process of re-carbonatation of the calcined mineral matter in the outermost part of the sample due to combustion in a CO2 rich atmosphere. FTIR-ATR is a powerful tool that allows for identifying and characterizing local heterogeneities in bone preservation. This technique open new prospects to reconstruct the taphonomical history of ancient samples.
    Mots-clés : ATR-FTIR mapping, Diagenesis, Fossil bone, Heated bone.

  • Lebreton, Vincent, Jaouadi, Sahbi, Mulazzani, Simone, Boujelben, Abdelkarim, Belhouchet, Lotfi, Gammar, Amor Mokhtar, Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie, Saliège, Jean-François, Karray, Mohamed Raouf, et Fouache, Eric.0 « Early Oleiculture Or Native Wild Olea In Eastern Maghreb: New Pollen Data From The Sebkha-Lagoon Halk El Menjel (Hergla, Central Tunisia) ». Environmental Archaeology.

  • Leplongeon, Alice.0 « Microliths In The Middle And Later Stone Age Of Eastern Africa: New Data From Porc-Epic And Goda Buticha Cave Sites, Ethiopia ». Quaternary International.
    Résumé : Microliths and microlithic industries are central to definitions of the Later Stone Age technologies. It is generally accepted that microliths are associated with a change to more complex hunting technologies and strategies. However, because there is evidence of microlith production in Middle Stone Age contexts, there are debates regarding the significance of the presence of microliths within an assemblage. This paper aims to analyse the microlithic component of Middle and Later Stone Age assemblages in the eastern Ethiopia region, by means of lithic assemblages from two major cave sites, Porc-Epic and Goda Buticha. This paper presents a short review of the different meanings of the term “microlith” and of the diversity of microlith-bearing assemblages in the Middle and Later Stone Age in sub-Saharan Africa. An analysis of the microliths is presented using a methodology which helps to distinguish intentionally produced versus accidentally produced microliths, from Porc-Epic and Goda Buticha assemblages. The results of this study indicate that no intentional microliths are present in Porc-Epic assemblages, in contrast with those recovered in the Goda Buticha assemblages. Interestingly, very few microliths are present in the Pleistocene Middle Stone Age levels; they are more numerous (but not overwhelmingly) in the Holocene Later Stone Age levels of these sites. These results contribute to the discussion of the role of microliths in the Middle and in the Later Stone Age in this particular region of eastern Ethiopia.

  • Magniez, Pierre, et Boulbes, Nicolas.0 « Environment During The Middle To Late Palaeolithic Transition In Southern France: The Archaeological Sequence Of Tournal Cave (Bize-Minervois, France) ». Quaternary International 337: 43–63.
    Résumé : Late Pleistocene deposits of Tournal Cave, southwestern France, provided several human occupations attributed to Mousterian, Aurignacian, and Magdalenian cultures. Some human remains (Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens) were identified in each unit. This study presents a detailed temporal reconstruction of habitats surrounding the cave, using various proxies based on rich large mammal assemblages and related to biological activities. The levels correlated to MIS 3 and MIS 2 are characterized by alternating carnivore, Neanderthal, and Anatomically Modern Human (AMH) occupations. Faunal exploitation was mainly oriented towards Equus caballus and Rangifer tarandus, with a significant increase in the latter prey from the last Aurignacian level onwards. The results exhibit geographic and temporal variations of reindeer and horse body size. Reindeer can be used as a suitable ecological marker, as rapid changes are correlated to environmental turnover, whereas the horse presents a different pattern and is an accurate chronological estimator. The palaeoecological results indicate a major climate change between the two Aurignacian levels. The Mousterian and the first Aurignacian levels, documenting the Middle to Late Palaeolithic transition, show high indices of specific richness and diversity of large mammals in relation with a periglacial moderate cold and wet climate. The region developed a mixed landscape and displayed a non-analogue fauna with E. caballus, R. tarandus, Cervus elaphus, Megaloceros giganteus, Bison priscus, Bos primigenius, Capra caucasica praepyrenaica, Sus scrofa and Coelodonta antiquitatis for the ungulates and Ursus spelaeus, Ursus arctos, Crocuta crocuta spelaea, Panthera leo spelaea, Panthera pardus, Lynx spelaeus, Canis lupus and Vulpes vulpes for the carnivores. The breakdown occurring in the last Aurignacian level is characterized by a change in ecological settings, with a colder and drier climate and opening of the landscape, involving shifts in seasonality, plant phenology, reindeer body size and animal population densities. This impacted habitat fragmentation and geographic distribution of populations, implying various selective pressures that were reflected in human meat procurement and dispersal events. At Tournal Cave, the late Middle/early Late Palaeolithic transition is not directly marked by significant differences in terms of faunal exploitation, due to local climate and site function, but the major environmental shift recorded is delayed. The results indicate that abrupt climate oscillations during MIS 3 contributed to the decline of Neanderthal populations, notably because of habitat fragmentation. AMHs could have generated additional stresses.

  • Malerba, Giancarla, Giacobini, Giacomo, Onoratini, Gérard, Arellano, Almudena, et Moullé, Pierre-Elie.0 « Entre Esthétique Et Symbolisme. L’Objet Gravettien En Stéatite De La Grotte Florestan (Grimaldi, Vintimille, Italie). Étude Descriptive Et Technologique ». L'Anthropologie 118(3): 292–308.

  • Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Alué, Ethel, Bailon, Salvador, Barshay-Szmidt, Carolyn, Béarez, Philippe, Crégut, Évelyne, Daujeard, Camille, Desclaux, Emmanuel, Debard, Évelyne, Lartigot-Campin, Anne-Sophie, Puaud, Simon, et Roger, Thierry.0 « Evaluating The Integrity Of Palaeoenvironmental And Archaeological Records In Mis 5 To 3 Karst Sequences From Southeastern France ». Quaternary International.
    Résumé : The preservation of palaeoenvironmental and archeological records in cave and rock shelter contexts is often called into question for Pleistocene sequences. Records are always fragmentary and the preservation of sediments and archaeological remains is partial and differential, according to site history. The karst deposits are often frequently described as disturbed due to post-depositional processes and phases of erosion over time. However, taphonomical analyses and some very well-preserved evidence attest to the capacity of caves to record data. Systematic and interdisciplinary fieldwork and studies allow for the reconstruction of some characteristics of Neanderthal occupations in their biostratigraphical and geochronological context. The geographic area under consideration here is the Rhône Valley. The right bank of the Middle Rhône Valley has yielded more than ten Middle Palaeolithic sites. Some of them have been studied recently through interdisciplinary fieldwork, providing new data on the end of the Middle Pleistocene and the beginning of the Upper Pleistocene. For this paper, we focus on four sites dated from the end of MIS 5, MIS 4 and the beginning of MIS 3, containing layers with evidence of Neanderthal occupations: Saint-Marcel, Abri du Maras, Abri des Pêcheurs and Le Figuier. All these sites are rock shelters or cave chambers and porches belonging to a karst system. The aim of our research program is to provide as much data as possible on Neanderthal occupations in their environmental contexts, in order to describe subsistence strategies and land use throughout time and potential links with climatic changes. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of assessing the relationship between climatic change and behaviour during the Middle Palaeolithic by describing the main archaeological material and palaeoenvironmental records of these four sites. Then, in the discussion, we conjointly examine the data from each site to assess this key question, even though the low resolution of cave and rock shelter records makes it difficult to establish an accurate chronology for human occupations and to provide a detailed description of the environment around the site for each human occupation.

  • Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Arzarello, Marta, Theodoropoulou, Angeliki, et Boulio, Yves.0 « Variabilité De L’Acheuléen De Plein Air Entre Rhône Et Loire (France) ». L'Anthropologie 118(4): 408–436.

  • Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Chacón, María Gema, La Porta, Alice, Fernandes, Paul, Hardy, Bruce, et Gallotti, Rosalia.0 « Fragmented Reduction Processes: Middle Palaeolithic Technical Behaviour In The Abri Du Maras Shelter, Southeastern France ». Quaternary International 350(18): 180–204.
    Résumé : New excavations at the Abri du Maras, located in the southeast of France, have yielded Middle Palaeolithic assemblages with evidence of rock shelter occupations in a cold climatic context contemporaneous with MIS 4. Few MIS 4 sites are known in this part of France and especially in this state of preservation. The paper is focused on one sedimentological layer divided into two archaeological levels (sub-levels 4.1 and 4.2). Our goal was to examine the Middle Palaeolithic lithic assemblage of these two levels by interdisciplinary approaches (technology, origin of flint and functional analysis of stone tools) in order to identify the technical strategies and the land-use patterns in a specific environmental context. The two occupations do not show differences in behaviours. The technical strategies applied to flint and other stones indicate a fragmentation of the reduction processes in a local and semi-local perimeter around the site. The main core technology is Levallois, generally on flint cortical cores on flakes. Flint flakes, blades and points are the main components of the series and the technological aims of the debitage. Due to the small size of the flakes used for flaking, large flint flakes, blades (Levallois or cortical) and Levallois points were produced elsewhere, to the north and south of the site (up to 20–30 km) according to the geological study, and then brought to the shelter. Flakes in other lithic materials (quartz, quartzite) were also knapped elsewhere before being transported to the shelter. Some of the large flint flakes, but also nodules and fragments of slabs, were then used for onsite flaking. Flake-tools are very rare. Evidence of impact fractures and TCSA/TCSPs values of the corpus of unretouched Levallois points suggest that some points, brought or prepared on the site, could have been used as projectile tips. The lithics attest to management of local and semi-local stones in a perimeter of 30 km around the site (possibly more due to some unidentified flint) and an anticipation of domestic needs in relation to reindeer hunting, the predominant activity. Imported artefacts and artefacts made on the site were used for the same diversity of activities and materials (butchery, plant and woodworking). The technological strategies and the type of management differ slightly from those from cave assemblages in the same area located in valleys and on low plateaux near the Rhône corridor, possibly due to the type of the site, a vast shelter. Data from the Abri du Maras are compared to data from the other Middle Palaeolithic sites of the region and the role of the topographic aspect of the site on the type of occupations is discussed.
    Mots-clés : Neanderthals, Shelter, Southeastern France, Technical behaviour, upper Pleistocene.

  • Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Puaud, Simon, Daujeard, Camille, Lateur, Nicolas, Lartigot-Campin, Anne-Sophie, Debard, Évelyne, Crégut-Bonnoure, Évelyne, et Raynal, Jean-Paul.0 « Le Site Du Ranc-Pointu No 2 À Saint-Martin-D’Ardèche : Une Occupation Du Paléolithique Moyen Ancien Dans Le Sud-Est De La France ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 13(2): 121-136.
    Résumé : Les nouveaux travaux effectués en 2008 au Ranc-Pointu no 2, grotte située au bord de l’Ardèche, ont permis de faire un bilan complet du remplissage et des vestiges attribués aux occupations humaines de cette petite cavité. Il semble bien qu’au moins une phase d’occupation humaine soit attestée (couche « c »). La plus récente (sommet de la couche « c ») a livré le plus grand nombre de matériel faunique et lithique. La couche « f » à la base n’a livré qu’un seul biface. Le corpus de la grande faune révisée suggère une amélioration climatique de la base vers le sommet, en accord avec les données sédimentologiques. La datation OSL de la couche archéologique (« c1 ») de 145,2 ± 9,2 ka est discutée sur la base des nouvelles données paléoenvironnementales et des industries. Aucun réel désaccord n’est mis en évidence et cette date pourrait donc attester une occupation humaine contemporaine de la fin du Pléistocène moyen (MIS 6). Elle apporterait ainsi la preuve d’une fréquentation humaine des rives de l’Ardèche au Paléolithique moyen ancien, comblant un hiatus chronologique dans ce secteur. À quelques centaines de mètres, les grottes du Figuier ou de Saint-Marcel livrent également des niveaux du Paléolithique moyen, mais ces niveaux sont rapportés à des périodes plus récentes du début du Pléistocène supérieur. Dans le département, seule la base de l’abri Moula-Guercy et le sommet de l’ensemble D de Payre, situés plus au nord, sont connus pour avoir enregistré des niveaux du MIS 6. New investigations conducted in 2008 at Ranc-Pointu No. 2, a small cave located along the Ardèche River, led to the complete revision of the infilling and assemblages, confirming at least one human occupation in this small cave. There may have been two periods of occupation, but only the main one located at the top of the sequence (level ‘c’) has been firmly established. Revision of the large mammal corpus and sedimentological data suggests climatic warming from the base to the top of the sequence. The OSL dating of sub-level ‘c1’ to 145 ka must be discussed in relation to the interdisciplinary results. It suggests that this cave was occupied at the end of MIS 6 and therefore that human populations were present in the Ardèche gorges at the end of the Middle Pleistocene. Ranc-Pointu No. 2 would thus represent older Middle Palaeolithic occupations than in other caves located along the Ardèche River, such as Le Figuier or Saint-Marcel. In the Ardèche French department, only the bottom of the Moula-Guercy sequence and the top of the sequence at the site of Payre, both of which are northern sites, have recorded MIS 6 deposits.
    Mots-clés : Archéozoologie, Comportements humains, France, Human behavior, Micromorphologie, Micromorphology, Middle Palaeolithic, Palaeontology, Paléolithique moyen, Paléontologie, Palynologie, Palynology, Sédimentologie, Sedimentology, Zooarchaeology.

  • Mussi, Margherita, Altamura, Flavio, Macchiarelli, Roberto, Melis, Rita T., et Spinapolice, Enza E.0 « Garba Iii (Melka Kunture, Ethiopia): A Msa Site With Archaic Homo Sapiens Remains Revisited ». Quaternary international 343: 28–39.
    Résumé : Garba III, in the upper Awash Valley of Ethiopia, is one of the many sub-sites of Melka Kunture, where the overall archaeological record starts at c. 1.8 Ma. Garba III was excavated over several years in the 1970s, under the direction of Francis Hours, who was able to publish only preliminary reports before his untimely death. At the base of the sequence, Acheulean layers were discovered and, above then, MSA layers characterized by ferruginous concretions, where three cranial fragments of Homo sapiens were also found. An age close to 150 ka was suggested for the human remains and associated industry of the upper layers, which are the focus of the current re-assessment. At the time, however, no clear-cut distinction was made between Acheulean and MSA. In 2011, the original site was re-located, geological trenches were dug, the stratigraphic sequence was documented in detail, and a geomorphological reconstruction was prepared. Lithic collections and anthropological remains, kept in Addis Ababa, were also re-studied. New field research highlights complex site formation processes, including cyclic phases of erosion and re-deposition of pre-existing soils and deposits. However, pedogenetic processes, which developed twice, also point to prolonged phases of stability, in good accordance with the state of preservation of the lithic industry, which is neither rolled nor fragmented. Small-sized obsidian pebbles were knapped, which were available locally in the alluvium deposits. The technological and typological analysis confirms that the lithic industry is Early MSA. A variety of knapping methods were in use, including the Levallois method, well established and mostly recurrent. Points were produced, as well as scrapers, denticulates, and scaled pieces. Circumstantial evidence points to an age not later than an early phase of MIS 5e. The anthropological remains, one of which was so far undescribed, are fragments of a right parietal bone, of a parietal or, more likely, of a frontal bone, and of an occipital bone. They contribute to the still scanty fossil record available at the key-time of the “archaic” H. sapiens emergence and early spread.

  • Nomade, S., Pastre, J. F., Guillou, H., Faure, M., Guérin, C., Delson, E., Debard, E., Voinchet, P., et Messager, E.0 « 40Ar/39Ar Constraints On Some French Landmark Late Pliocene To Early Pleistocene Large Mammalian Paleofaunas: Paleoenvironmental And Paleoecological Implications ». Quaternary Geochronology 21: 2-15.
    Résumé : To improve the French Plio-Pleistocene biostratigraphy scheme based on mammal biozone boundaries or “Mammal Neogene/Quaternary Zones” (MNQ) we collected volcanic material that could be dated using the 40Ar/39Ar method in five exceptional mammalian paleofauna sites located in the Massif Central (France). We present 40Ar/39Ar ages that we obtained for Perrier-Les Etouaires, Roca-Neyra, Chilhac, Senèze and le Creux de Peyrolles. We show that the overall stratigraphic position of these sites based on faunal assemblages is valid from the relative point of view. However, we greatly improve both the accuracy and precision of the age of these mammalian paleofaunas. We obtained 40Ar/39Ar ages varying between 2.78 ± 0.01 Ma (1σ external) for Les Etouaires (Lower MNQ 16b) and 1.47 ± 0.01 Ma for the Creux de Peyrolles site (MNQ 19). Based on these new dates we estimate the duration of several biozones including MNQ 16b, 17a and 17b. We suggest that the first Late Villafranchian biozone (MNQ 18) starts as early as the Reunion subchron or just after. The first occurrence of Equus stenonis in Roca-Neyra (i.e. 2.60 ± 0.02 Ma) is close to or synchronous with the Gauss–Matuyama transition (i.e. 2.59 Ma) and the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. The chronological framework we build shows the very rapid increase of the large grazers community in French faunal assemblages at the beginning of MNQ 17 (i.e. 2.6 to 2.4 Ma). This rapid faunal turnover is probably associated with a general decrease of woodland habitat in the Massif Central contemporaneous with the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciations. The faunal assemblages in France, Spain, and Italy covering the period between 2.1 and 2.0 Ma suggest that favorable conditions for early hominin settlement (mainly savannah prairies, grassland with open forest patches) existed in southwestern Europe at least 200 ka before the first traces of Homo in Eurasia. This period also shows the arrival of taxa originating in Asia and Africa, suggesting dispersal events within southwestern Europe well before the Olduvai subchron and with no indication (as yet) of Homo as a “fellow traveler”.
    Mots-clés : 40Ar/39Ar, Early Pleistocene, Homo, Terrestrial mammal biozones and dispersal.

  • Péan, Stéphane, et Prat, Sandrine.0 « Hommes Et Environnements Au Paléolithique Supérieur En Ukraine Continentale Et En Crimée: Introduction ». L'Anthropologie 118(5): 479–482.

  • Petrosino, P., Jicha, B. R., Mazzeo, F. C., et Russo Ermolli, E.0 « A High Resolution Tephrochronological Record Of Mis 14–12 In The Southern Apennines (Acerno Basin, Italy) ». Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 274: 34-50.
    Résumé : Lithological, mineralogical, and glass chemical analyses on juvenile fragments extracted from 20 tephra layers embedded within the lacustrine sediments of the Acerno Basin (Southern Apennines, Italy) were carried out together with four sanidine 40Ar/39Ar age determinations. The measured ages span the interval between 561 and 493 ka. Middle Pleistocene eruptive activity at Roman Province volcanoes was identified as the main possible source of the investigated tephra layers. Some of them were correlated with precise terrestrial counterparts corresponding to large explosive events of the Sabatini (e.g. Tufo Giallo della Via Tiberina) and Alban Hills volcanic districts (e.g. Tufo Pisolitico di Trigoria). The integration of tephrochronology and pollen analyses allowed the Acerno lacustrine sedimentation to be constrained between MIS 14 and 12, which overlaps with several well-studied, lacustrine successions of the Southern Apennines. The correlation with other tephrostratigraphic records from intramontane basins in central-southern Apennines testifies to the wide dispersal of at least three tephra layers that serve as marker layers, thus improving the resolution of the Middle Pleistocene Italian tephrostratotype.
    Mots-clés : 40Ar/39Ar dating, Latial volcanoes, Middle Pleistocene, Pollen, Tephrostratigraphy.

  • Pleurdeau, David, Hovers, Erella, Assefa, Zelalem, Asrat, Asfawossen, Pearson, Osbjorn, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, et Lam, Yin Man.0 « Cultural Change Or Continuity In The Late Msa/early Lsa Of Southeastern Ethiopia? The Site Of Goda Buticha, Dire Dawa Area ». Quaternary International 343: 117–135.
    Résumé : Goda Buticha is a newly discovered cave site in southeastern Ethiopia, containing MSA and LSA cultural material, faunal remains, beads, and human skeletal remains. A 2.3 m-deep sedimentary sequence records two occupational phases separated by a sharp chronological hiatus, in the Upper Pleistocene (∼ 43–31.5 ka cal BP) and in the mid- Holocene (7.8–4.7 ka cal BP). Faunal remains suggest changes in paleoecological conditions that are in agreement with patterns documented in regional speleothem-based reconstructions. The lithic assemblage at the base of the sequence is clearly MSA, with Levallois production, unifacial and bifacial points, relatively large debitage and use of local raw materials, associated with a microlithic component. The overlaying LSA assemblage contains diagnostic artifacts (backed microliths and bladelet production), with ubiquitous use of obsidian and MSA elements that appear in the Holocene. In the absence of indications for post-depositional mixture, the apparent cultural continuity of MSA elements from the Upper Pleistocene into the Middle Holocene at Goda Buticha may represent yet another variation of the elusive MSA/LSA transition. Goda Buticha is a key site for reevaluating the dynamics and tempo of this transition in eastern Africa.
    Mots-clés : Eastern Africa, Microliths, MSA–LSA transition, Southeastern Ethiopia, upper Pleistocene.

  • Raynal, Jean-Paul, Lafarge, Audrey, Rémy, Delphine, Delvigne, Vincent, Guadelli, Jean-Luc, Costamagno, Sandrine, Le Gall, Olivier, Daujeard, Camille, Vivent, Dominique, Fernandes, Paul, Le Corre-le Beux, Muriel, Vernet, Gérard, Bazile, Frédéric, et Lefèvre, David.0 « Datations Sma Et Nouveaux Regards Sur L’Archéo-Séquence Du Rond-Du-Barry (Polignac, Haute-Loire) ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 13(7): 623-636.
    Résumé : Résumé Trente-six dates radiocarbone par spectrométrie de masse par accélérateur, réalisées sur des restes fauniques appartenant chaque fois à un seul individu, précisent le découpage chrono-culturel de l’archéo-séquence de la grotte du Rond-du-Barry (Polignac, Haute-Loire). Reposant sur un complexe effondré dont la base n’a jamais été atteinte, l’unité archéo-stratigraphique H contenait du Paléolithique moyen récent, daté entre 40 et 33 ka BP. Le Paléolithique supérieur est représenté par l’unité archéo-stratigraphique F – avec trois secteurs d’occupation rapportés au Badegoulien et datés entre 20 et 17,5 ka BP – et par les unités archéo-stratigraphiques E et D, dont le Magdalénien moyen et supérieur est daté entre 15,4 et 12,4 ka BP. Dans l’unité E, un téphra (E6) appartient au lobe distal d’un nuage éruptif issu de la Chaîne des Puys, à plus de 100 km au sud de son origine. L’unité archéo-stratigraphique D a subi des perturbations au Mésolithique/Néolithique ancien, entre 6,5 et 4,9 ka BP. Ces résultats révèlent une complexité stratigraphique et spatiale du remplissage que les fouilles anciennes ont ignorée et renforcent l’intérêt d’entreprendre de nouveaux travaux. Abstract A series of 36 radiocarbon AMS ages produced from separate bone fragments has prompted a new appraisal of the archaeological sequence of the Rond-du-Barry Cave (Polignac, Haute-Loire). A huge rock-fall of unknown age underlies Unit H, which contains evidence of the oldest human occupation of the site consisting of a Middle Palaeolithic assemblage dated to between 40 and 33 kyr. The first Upper Palaeolithic occupation of the Cave occurred later. In Unit F, three Badegoulian occupation sectors can be identified that are dated to between 20 and 17.5 kyr. The uppermost units, E and D yielded Middle and Upper Magdalenian dates of between 15.4 and 12.4 kyr. Within Unit E, a tephra related layer (E6) is likely to belong to a distal southern lobe of an eruptive event that was centred in the Chaîne des Puys, 100 km to the north. Unit D shows evidence of being re-worked at least during Mesolithic/Neolithic times, circa 6.5/4.9 kyr. The sum of this new evidence demonstrates the existence of a previously unrecognised stratigraphic and spatial complexity within the Rond-du-Barry archaeological deposits, which demands that new investigations be made in this cave.
    Mots-clés : Antler, Badegoulian, Badegoulien, Bois de renne, Bone, Magdalénien, Magdalenian, Mass spectrometry, Moustérien, Mousterian, Os, Radiocarbon, Radiocarbone, Spectrométrie de masse par accélérateur, Téphra, Tephra.

  • Rendu, William, Beauval, Cédric, Crevecoeur, Isabelle, Bayle, Priscilla, Balzeau, Antoine, Bismuth, Thierry, Bourguignon, Laurence, Delfour, Géraldine, Faivre, Jean-Philippe, Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François, Tavormina, Carlotta, Todisco, Dominique, Turq, Alain, et Maureille, Bruno.0 « Evidence Supporting An Intentional Neandertal Burial At La Chapelle-Aux-Saints ». Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(1): 81-86.
    Résumé : The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.
    Mots-clés : Archaeology, Middle Paleolithic, Mousterian burial, symbolic behavior, Taphonomy.

  • Reyes-Centeno, Hugo, Ghirotto, Silvia, Détroit, Florent, Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique, Barbujani, Guido, et Harvati, Katerina.0 « Genomic And Cranial Phenotype Data Support Multiple Modern Human Dispersals From Africa And A Southern Route Into Asia ». Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(20): 7248-7253.
    Résumé : Despite broad consensus on Africa as the main place of origin for anatomically modern humans, their dispersal pattern out of the continent continues to be intensely debated. In extant human populations, the observation of decreasing genetic and phenotypic diversity at increasing distances from sub-Saharan Africa has been interpreted as evidence for a single dispersal, accompanied by a series of founder effects. In such a scenario, modern human genetic and phenotypic variation was primarily generated through successive population bottlenecks and drift during a rapid worldwide expansion out of Africa in the Late Pleistocene. However, recent genetic studies, as well as accumulating archaeological and paleoanthropological evidence, challenge this parsimonious model. They suggest instead a “southern route” dispersal into Asia as early as the late Middle Pleistocene, followed by a separate dispersal into northern Eurasia. Here we test these competing out-of-Africa scenarios by modeling hypothetical geographical migration routes and assessing their correlation with neutral population differentiation, as measured by genetic polymorphisms and cranial shape variables of modern human populations from Africa and Asia. We show that both lines of evidence support a multiple-dispersals model in which Australo-Melanesian populations are relatively isolated descendants of an early dispersal, whereas other Asian populations are descended from, or highly admixed with, members of a subsequent migration event.
    Mots-clés : cranial diversity, genome diversity, human evolution, modern human origins, SNPs.

  • Rosina, Pierluigi, Voinchet, Pierre, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Cristovão, Jorge, et Falguères, Christophe.0 « Dating The Onset Of Lower Tagus River Terrace Formation Using Electron Spin Resonance ». Journal of Quaternary Science 29(2): 153-162.
    Résumé : In the Western Iberian Peninsula, staircases of fluvial terraces have been the subject of several recent studies. In particular, many recent publications have focused on the Quaternary fluvial chronostratigraphy of the Lower Tagus Basin. However, there are still doubts with respect to the timing of the first incision into the late Tertiary basin-fill deposits, their upper part already recording a fluvial environment (‘basin inversion’), which was the start of terrace formation. This is because most dating methods are ineffective for this type of deposit (generally without organic and/or volcanic materials). In the last 10 years, new dating methods such as electron spin resonance (ESR) applied to sedimentary quartz now facilitate more accurate chronologies. This paper presents the results of the ESR dating of the older terraces of the lower Tagus Basin, Portugal, with extrapolation on the age of early drainage network evolution. According the results, the oldest fluvial terrace was formed around 900 ka, so the origination of the Portuguese Tagus River terrace system can be attributed to the final part of the Early Pleistocene.
    Mots-clés : ESR dates of sedimentary quartz, fluvial incision, onset of the staircase formation, Quaternary fluvial terraces, Tagus River.

  • Salavert, Aurélie, Messager, Erwan, Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute, Giedre, Lebreton, Vincent, Bayle, Grégory, Crépin, Laurent, Puaud, Simon, Péan, Stéphane, Yamada, Masayoshi, et Yanevich, Aleksander.0 « First Results Of Archaeobotanical Analysis From Neolithic Layers Of Buran Kaya Iv (Crimea, Ukraine) ». Environmental Archaeology.
    Résumé : This paper contributes to understand the palaeoenvironment and the exploitation of vegetal resources during the Mid-Holocene in the southern Crimean Mountains. To address these questions, we apply a multi-proxy approach based on charcoal, seeds/fruits and phytoliths analyses from Neolithic layers (5800–5300 cal BC) of Buran-Kaya IV, a rock-shelter located in the south of Crimean Peninsula. Charcoal analysis shows that the Neolithic groups have exploited the Quercus petraeae forest belt composed mainly of Quercus, Carpinus and Acer. The identification of Fagus and a fragment of gymnosperm, which developed in upland areas, suggests the mobility of inhabitants of BK IV. According seed and phytolith analyses, it is more likely that the Neolithic groups did not practice agriculture on the site, and that their diet was not based on crop production. Furthermore, considering the probable absence of domestic animals in the layer 2, the economy may essentially be based on hunting-gathering at Buran Kaya IV.

  • Salesse, K., Dufour, E., Lebon, M., Wurster, C., Castex, D., Bruzek, J., et Zazzo, A.0 « Variability Of Bone Preservation In A Confined Environment: The Case Of The Catacomb Of Sts Peter And Marcellinus (Rome, Italy) ». Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 416: 43–54.
    Résumé : Most of the studies investigating the diagenetic trajectory of fossil bones focus on open-air sites and very little work have been published in confined environments such as catacombs. While the stable thermal history of catacombs should favor bone preservation, the accumulation of corpses over a short period of time could favor their destruction. The aim of this study is to describe the diagenetic trajectory of 128 human bone samples coming from six different burial chambers of the catacomb of Sts Peter and Marcellinus (SSPM, Rome, Italy). A multi-proxy approach was undertaken to provide an assessment of the molecular preservation as well as a direct record of the isotopic composition itself. Collagen yield, carbon and nitrogen abundances, C:N ratio, FT-IR based collagen and carbonate contents and crystallinity index, radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analysis of bone collagen and carbonate indicate that both the mineral and the organic fractions are impacted by diagenesis to various degrees, and that bones originating from the small burial chambers are more affected than those coming from the large ones. While some of the bones were strongly recrystallized, the impact of bone diagenesis on the stable isotope values of bone carbonate was limited. Comparison with contemporary sites from the Latium showed that conditions prevailing in catacombs seem overall to favor, rather than disadvantage bone preservation.
    Mots-clés : Apatite, Collagen, Diagenesis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Radiocarbon, stable isotopes.

  • Saos, Thibaud, Djerrab, Abderrezak, et Defleur, Alban.0 « Étude Stratigraphique, Sédimentologique Et Magnétique Des Dépôts Pléistocène Moyen Et Supérieur De La Baume Moula-Guercy (Soyons, Ardèche) ». Quaternaire 25(3): 195–208.

  • Schmidt, Patrick.0 « What Causes Failure (Overheating) During Lithic Heat Treatment? ». Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 6(2): 107-112.
    Résumé : Heat treatment of lithic raw material, i.e. the intentional alteration of silica rocks for improving their knapping quality, is a process that may require great care and precisely controlled conditions in order to avoid failure due to overheating. The physical causes of overheating remain poorly understood leading to problems in the interpretation of heat-treated artefacts and/or fire-related taphonomic alteration of different types of silica rocks. This driving force of overheating is investigated by a set of experimental heat treatment sequences with different ramp rates and different volumes of flint with a well-defined mineralogical composition, porosity and water content. The results of this experiment show the main cause of heat-induced fracturing to be the vapour pressure in fluid inclusions within the rocks. Heterogeneous thermal expansion could be discarded. The interdependence between volume and heating rate is also shown. These results have implications for the study of archaeological heat-treated rocks, the understanding of taphonomic heat-induced fracturing of silica rocks and experimental flint knapping.
    Mots-clés : Anthropology, Archaeology, Chemistry/Food Science, general, Earth Sciences, general, Flint, Flint knapping, Geography (general), Heat treatment, Life Sciences, general, Lithic raw material, Overheating, Thermal alteration.

  • Shao, Qingfeng, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Dolo, Jean-Michel, et Falguères, Christophe.0 « Monte Carlo Approach To Calculate Us-Esr Age And Age Uncertainty For Tooth Enamel ». Quaternary Geochronology 22: 99-106.
    Résumé : The combination of electron spin resonance (ESR) and U-series dating approach is increasingly being used to fossil teeth from archaeological sites. A rigorous age uncertainty assessment is needed for this dating method. However, it is difficult to provide partial derivatives of the combined ESR/U-series (US) model, as required by the law of propagation of uncertainties. In this study, we developed a new age calculation MATLAB program, called USESR, using a Monte Carlo approach for estimating the age and the age uncertainty for tooth enamel. Tests have been performed with virtual samples (n = 64). The results suggest that this Monte Carlo approach can provide reliable US-ESR age and reduced age uncertainty in comparison with those obtained by the routinely used program, DATA. The results also show that the new program has higher tolerance limits of U-series disequilibrium than the DATA program for US-ESR age calculations.
    Mots-clés : DATA program, Monte Carlo simulation, Uncertainty, US-ESR age, USESR program.

  • Shao, Qingfeng, Wang, Wei, Deng, Chenglong, Voinchet, Pierre, Lin, Min, Zazzo, Antoine, Douville, Eric, Dolo, Jean-Michel, Falguères, Christophe, et Bahain, Jean-Jacques.0 « Esr, U-Series And Paleomagnetic Dating Of Gigantopithecus Fauna From Chuifeng Cave, Guangxi, Southern China ». Quaternary Research 82(1): 270–280.
    Résumé : Several Gigantopithecus faunas associated with taxonomically undetermined hominoid fossils and/or stone artifacts are known from southern China. These faunas are particularly important for the study of the evolution of humans and other mammals in Asia. However, the geochronology of the Gigantopithecus faunas remains uncertain. In order to solve this problem, a program of geochronological studies of Gigantopithecus faunas in Guangxi Province was recently initiated. Chuifeng Cave is the first studied site, which yielded 92 Gigantopithecus blacki teeth associated with numerous other mammalian fossils. We carried out combined ESR/U-series dating of fossil teeth and sediment paleomagnetic studies. Our ESR results suggest that the lower layers at this cave can be dated to 1.92 ± 0.14 Ma and the upper layers can be dated to older than 1.38 ± 0.17 Ma. Correlation of the recognized magnetozones to the geomagnetic polarity timescale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and ESR data. The combined chronologies establish an Olduvai subchron (1.945–1.778 Ma) for the lowermost Chuifeng Cave sediments. We also analyzed the enamel δ13C values of the Gigantopithecus faunas. Our results show that southern China was dominated by C3 plants during the early Pleistocene and that the Gigantopithecus faunas lived in a woodland-forest ecosystem.
    Mots-clés : Chuifeng Cave, Early Pleistocene, Enamel δ13C, ESR dating of fossil teeth, Gigantopithecus fauna, Paleomagnetism.

  • Stoetzel, Emmanuelle, Campmas, Emilie, Michel, Patrick, Bougariane, Bouchra, Ouchaou, Brahim, Amani, Fethi, El Hajraoui, Mohamed Abdejalil, et Nespoulet, Roland.0 « Context Of Modern Human Occupations In North Africa: Contribution Of The Témara Caves Data ». Quaternary International 320: 143-161.
    Résumé : El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra caves are located in the region of Témara, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, which was occupied by human populations since the beginning of the Late Pleistocene (around 120 ka BP) until the Middle Holocene (around 6 ka BP). Recent excavations yielded human and faunal remains, as well as exceptional archaeological objects (Middle, Upper Palaeolithic and Neolithic industries; ceramics; ornaments in Nassarius sp. shells; bone tools; pigments) associated with anthropic structures. The continuous sedimentary sequence of these sites covers the last climatic cycle (from the Eemian interglacial to the present one), and is studied in a renewed context from several points of view: geology, stratigraphy, chronology, cultures, anthropology, palaeontology, taphonomy, and zooarchaeology. Today, there is no equivalent of such regional data for the whole Late Pleistocene in North Africa. The study of small and large faunal remains, associated with chronological data, allowed us to obtain significant data on palaeoenvironments and human/carnivore occupations of the Témara caves. These data are included in a broader view of human occupations and their environmental context throughout North Africa during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  • Vaquero, Manuel, Bargalló, Amèlia, Chacón, María Gema, Romagnoli, Francesca, et Sañudo, Pablo.0 « Lithic Recycling In A Middle Paleolithic Expedient Context: Evidence From The Abric Romaní (Capellades, Spain) ». Quaternary International.
    Résumé : The aim of this paper is to present a general overview of the lithic recycling identified in the Middle Paleolithic layers of the Abric Romaní site. The archeological layers excavated thus far, spanning from 40 to 56 ka BP, have provided significant evidence suggesting that recycling of artifacts was a behavior fully integrated in lithic provisioning strategies. The characteristics of the Abric Romaní formation processes allow the recognition of most of the different types of data usually considered proxies of recycling: the reuse of patinated or burned artifacts, the use of a single artifact for different functions, successive knapping events on the same core, the reduction of flakes as cores, etc. In particular, the information provided by refitting and spatial analysis should be emphasized. We will pay special attention to the spatial and refitting data from level M, which is dated between 51 and 55 ka BP, by focusing on the intrasite transport of artifacts and of core-on-flake reduction sequences as potential evidence of recycling. The results indicate that recycling may have a spatial dimension that allows the differentiation between source areas and recycling areas in which technical needs are partly fulfilled by picking up previously discarded items.
    Mots-clés : Abric Romaní, Core-on-flake, Middle Paleolithic, Recycling, Refitting, Spatial analysis.

  • Vialet, Amélie, Guipert, Gaspard, Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat, et de Lumley, Marie-Antoinette.0 « La Calotte Crânienne De L’Homo Erectus De Kocabaş (Bassin De Denizli, Turquie) ». L'Anthropologie 118(1): 74-107.
    Résumé : En 2002, une calotte crânienne fragmentaire a été découverte dans le bassin de Denizli, localité de Kocabaş, dans le sud-ouest de la Turquie (Kappelman et al., 2008). Elle a été attribuée à un Homo erectus sur la base de la parenté morphologique et métrique observée avec les fossiles chinois de Zhoukoudian L-C ( Vialet et al., 2012). Sur la base d’une nouvelle reconstitution 3D de ce fossile, dont seul l’os frontal et des fragments d’os pariétaux sont conservés, une analyse morphologique et morphométrique (2D et 3D) plus approfondie a été menée à bien. Les résultats confirment que le spécimen de Kocabaş, par la morphologie de son os frontal, sa conformation et ses dimensions, se distingue nettement des Homo habilis-Homo georgicus d’une part et des Homo heidelbergensis-Néandertaliens d’autre part. En revanche, il partage avec les Homo erectus, tant africains (KNM-ER3733, OH9, Daka-Bouri) qu’asiatiques (crânes de Zhoukoudian L-C, Nankin 1, Sangiran 17), des caractères métriques, une constriction post-orbitaire marquée, un torus supra-orbitaire bordé postérieurement par un sulcus supra-toral et présentant inférieurement, une incisure et un tubercule supra-orbitaires, des lignes temporales en position moyennement hautes délimitant une zone infra-temporale au bombement net. Cependant, Kocabaş se différencie par les proportions de son os frontal (considéré hors torus supra-orbitaire), qui est court et large, des Homo erectus asiatiques, chez qui l’écaille frontale est plus longue. Il partage cette disposition avec les Homo erectus africains. De ce fait, le fossile turc se positionne comme un intermédiaire entre les Homo erectus d’Afrique et d’Asie, tant d’un point de vue anatomique que géographique. Étant donné les nouvelles datations proposées, au-delà de 1,1 Ma, pour ce fossile ( Lebatard et al., 2014a, Lebatard et al., 2014b, Khatib et al., 2014 and Boulbes et al., 2014), il contribue, avec OH9 (1,4–1,5 Ma) et Daka-Bouri (1 Ma), à combler une lacune paléoanthropologique, se situant entre KNM-ER3733 (1,78 Ma) et les fossiles chinois de Zhoukoudian L-C, Sangiran 17 (plus récents que 0,78 Ma) et Nankin 1 (environ 0,63 Ma). Cette étude, portant essentiellement sur l’os frontal, incite à considérer Homo erectus comme une espèce à vaste répartition géochronologique et forte variabilité morphométrique. In 2002, a fragmentary skullcap was discovered in Denizli basin, in the locality of Kocabaş, in the southwest of Turkey (Kappelman et al., 2008). The skullcap was ascribed to Homo erectus on the basis of morphological and metric similarities with the Chinese fossils from Zhoukoudian L-C ( Vialet et al., 2012). An in-depth morphological and metric analysis (2D and 3D) was carried out on a new 3D reconstruction of the fossil, made up of the frontal bone and parietal fragments. The results confirm that the morphology of the frontal bone, the conformation and the dimensions of the Kocabaş specimen, clearly differentiate it from Homo habilis-Homo georgicus, on one hand, and Homo heidelbergensis-Neanderthal, on the other. It displays similar metric characteristics to African (KNM-ER3733, OH9, Daka-Bouri) and Asian (skulls from Zhoukoudian L-C, Nankin 1, Sangiran 17) Homo erectus, a marked post-orbital constriction, a supraorbital torus bordered posteriorly by a supratoral sulcus and showing, on its inferior border, a supraorbital notch and tuber, temporal lines in a medium high position delimiting an infratemporal frontal zone with a clear bulge. However, the proportions of the short and large Kocabaş frontal bone (without the supraorbital torus) differentiate it from Asian Homo erectus, which present a longer squama frontalis. This feature is also present on African Homo erectus. Consequently, the Turkish fossil appears to be intermediary between the Homo erectus from Africa and Asia, both from an anatomic and geographic point of view. In the light of the new dates advanced for this fossil, at least 1.1 Ma ( Lebatard et al., 2014a, Lebatard et al., 2014b, Khatib et al., 2014 and Boulbes et al., 2014), it contributes, along with OH9, to bridging a palaeoanthropological gap between KNM-ER3733 (1.78 Ma) and the Chinese fossils from Zhoukoudian L-C, Sangiran 17 (earlier than 0.78 Ma) and Nankin 1 (approximately 0.63 Ma). This study, which mainly concerns the frontal bone, implies that Homo erectus is a species with a vast geochronological distribution and marked morphometric variability.
    Mots-clés : 3D morphometric geometry, 3D reconstruction, Frontal bone, Homo georgicus, Homo habilis, Homo heidelbergensis, Morphométrie 2D et 3D, Néandertal, Neandertal, Os frontal, Reconstitution 3D.

  • Voisin, J.-L., Ropars, M., et Thomazeau, H.0 « L’Acromion Humain: Une Vue Évolutionniste ». Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique 100(8): S332–S337.

  • Willmes, M., McMorrow, L., Kinsley, L., Armstrong, R., Aubert, M., Eggins, S., Falguères, C., Maureille, B., Moffat, I., et Grün, R. 2014. « The Irhum (Isotopic Reconstruction Of Human Migration) Database - Bioavailable Strontium Isotope Ratios For Geochemical Fingerprinting In France ». Earth System Science Data 6(1): 117-122.

  • Zanolli, Clément, Bondioli, Luca, Coppa, Alfredo, Dean, Christopher M., Bayle, Priscilla, Candilio, Francesca, Capuani, Silvia, Dreossi, Diego, Fiore, Ivana, Frayer, David W., Libsekal, Yosief, Mancini, Lucia, Rook, Lorenzo, Medin Tekle, Tsegai, Tuniz, Claudio, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « The Late Early Pleistocene Human Dental Remains From Uadi Aalad And Mulhuli-Amo (Buia), Eritrean Danakil: Macromorphology And Microstructure ». Journal of Human Evolution 74: 96–113.
    Résumé : Fieldwork performed during the last 15 years in various Early Pleistocene East African sites has significantly enlarged the fossil record of Homo erectus sensu lato (s.l.). Additional evidence comes from the Danakil Depression of Eritrea, where over 200 late Early to early Middle Pleistocene sites have been identified within a ∼1000 m-thick sedimentary succession outcropping in the Dandiero Rift Basin, near Buia. Along with an adult cranium (UA 31), which displays a blend of H. erectus-like and derived morpho-architectural features and three pelvic remains, two isolated permanent incisors (UA 222 and UA 369) have also been recovered from the 1 Ma (millions of years ago) Homo-bearing outcrop of Uadi Aalad. Since 2010, our surveys have expanded to the nearby (4.7 km) site of Mulhuli-Amo (MA). This is a fossiliferous area that has been preliminarily surveyed because of its exceptional concentration of Acheulean stone tools. So far, the site has yielded 10 human remains, including the unworn crown of a lower permanent molar (MA 93). Using diverse analytical tools (including high resolution μCT and μMRI), we analysed the external and internal macromorphology and microstructure of the three specimens, and whenever possible compared the results with similar evidence from early Homo, H. erectus s.l., H. antecessor, H. heidelbergensis (from North Africa), Neanderthals and modern humans. We also assessed the UA 369 lower incisor from Uadi Aalad for root completion timing and showed that it compares well with data for root apex closure in modern human populations.
    Mots-clés : Buia, East Africa, External morphology, Homo erectus/ergaster, Internal structure, teeth.
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2013 : publications dans des revues à comité de lecture

  • Adelsberger, Katherine A., Smith, Jennifer R., McPherron, Shannon P., Dibble, Harold L., Olszewski, Deborah I., Schurmans, Utsav A., et Chiotti, Laurent.0 « Desert Pavement Disturbance And Artifact Taphonomy: A Case Study From The Eastern Libyan Plateau, Egypt ». Geoarchaeology 28(2): 112-130.
    Résumé : Accretionary desert pavements on the eastern Libyan Plateau of central Egypt support a rich Middle and Upper Paleolithic artifact assemblage exhibiting intensive blank production and minimal tool production. These assemblages appear to be in primary context with numerous examples of lithic refits showing on-site lithic production. However, the smallest (length ≤2.5 cm) archaeological fragments are recovered at a much lower rate on this desert pavement surface than expected given comparable data from lithic assemblages in cave and shelter contexts in France. Excavation of archaeological contexts on the Libyan Plateau reveals the loss of small artifact fragments into the subsurface due to aeolian accumulation of silts, whereas geomorphic examination of desert pavement surfaces suggests a potential for relatively isolated bioturbation as a source of lateral and vertical disturbance of desert pavement surfaces over small areas. Archaeologists should be aware of the potential for long-term assemblage stability as well as small artifact burial in surficial desert pavement contexts.

  • Balzeau, A., Grimaud-Hervé, D., Détroit, Florent, Holloway, R. L., Combès, B., et Prima, S.0 « First Description Of The Cro-Magnon 1 Endocast And Study Of Brain Variation And Evolution In Anatomically Modern Homo Sapiens ». Bulletins et mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris 25(1-2): 1-18.
    Résumé : Paleoneurology is an important research field for studies of human evolution. Variations in the size and shape of the endocranium are a useful means of distinguishing between different hominin species, while brain asymmetry is related to behaviour and cognitive capacities. The evolution of the hominin brain is well documented and substantial literature has been produced on this topic, mostly from studies of endocranial casts, or endocasts. However, we have only little information about variations in endocranial form, size and shape in fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens (AMH) and about the evolution of the brain since the emergence of our species. One good illustration of this limited knowledge is that one of the first fossil H. sapiens discovered, in 1868, that is also one of the oldest well-preserved European specimen has never been studied in what concerns its endocranial morphology. The first aim of this study was to propose a detailed description of the endocranial anatomy of Cro-Magnon 1, using imaging methodologies, including an original methodology to quantify endocranial asymmetries. The second aim was to compare samples of the fossil and extant AMH in order to document differences in the form, size and shape of the endocasts. A decrease in absolute endocranial size since the Upper Palaeolithic was noticeable. Although both extant and older endocrania have the same anatomical layout, we nonetheless found non-allometric differences in the relative size and organization of different parts of the brain. These document previously unknown intraspecific anatomical variations in the H. sapiens brain, demonstrating its plasticity, with some areas (frontal and occipital lobes) having been more subject to variation than others (parietal, temporal or cerebellar lobes). That may be due to constraints to maintain an optimal performance while reducing in size and changing in shape during our recent evolution.
    Mots-clés : Asymétrie, Asymmetry, Évolution cérébrale, Brain evolution, Cro-Magnon, Demography, Endocasts, Endocrânes, Evolutionary Biology, Homo sapiens, Human genetics, Paléoneurologie, Paleoneurology.

  • Balzeau, Antoine.0 « Thickened Cranial Vault And Parasagittal Keeling: Correlated Traits And Autapomorphies Of Homo Erectus? ». Journal of Human Evolution 64(6): 631-644.
    Résumé : Homo erectus sensu lato (s.l.) is a key species in the hominin fossil record for the study of human evolution, being one of the first species discovered and perhaps the most documented, but also because of its long temporal range and having dispersed out of Africa earlier than any other human species. Here I test two proposed autapomorphic traits of H. erectus, namely the increased thickness of the upper cranial vault and parasagittal keeling. The definition of these two anatomical features and their expression and variation among hominids are discussed. The results of this study indicate that the upper vault in Asian H. erectus is not absolutely thicker compared with fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens, whereas Broken Hill and Petralona have values above the range of variation of H. erectus. Moreover, this anatomical region in Asian H. erectus is not significantly thicker compared with Pan paniscus. In addition, these results demonstrate that cranial vault thickness should not be used to make hypotheses regarding sexual attribution of fossil hominin specimens. I also show that the relation between relief on the external surface of the upper vault, parasagittal keeling and bregmatic eminence, and bone thickness is complex. In this context, the autapomorphic status of the two analysed traits in H. erectus may be rejected. Nevertheless, different patterns in the distribution of bone thickness on the upper vault were identified. Some individual variations are visible, but specificities are observable in samples of different species. The pattern of bone thickness distribution observed in Asian H. erectus, P. paniscus, possibly australopiths, and early Homo or Homo ergaster/erectus appears to be shared by these different species and would be a plesiomorphic trait among hominids. In contrast, two apomorphic states for this feature were identified for Neandertals and H. sapiens. Homo erectus sensu lato (s.l.) est une espèce clé au sein du registre fossile, étant l'une des premières découvertes et peut être la mieux documentée, mais aussi en raison de sa grande extension chronologique et ayant joué un rôle dans les premières migrations humaines hors du continent africain. Nous testons ici deux caractères supposés autapomorphes pour l'espèce H. erectus, en l'occurrence une épaisseur plus importante de la voûte crânienne et la présence de carènes parasagittales. Plus généralement, nous discutons la définition de ces caractères, ainsi que leur expression et variation chez les hominidés. Nous observons que la partie supérieure de la voûte chez H. erectus n'est pas plus épaisse en valeurs absolues que chez les Hommes modernes fossiles, alors que les valeurs pour Broken Hill et Petralona sont dans la variation observée chez H. erectus. Par ailleurs, cette partie anatomique n'est pas significativement plus épaisse en valeurs relatives en comparaison avec Pan paniscus. Nos résultats montrent aussi que l'épaisseur crânienne ne doit pas être utilisée pour proposer des hypothèses sur l'attribution sexuelle de spécimens fossiles d'homininés. Nous montrons aussi que la relation entre les reliefs sur la surface externe de la voûte, les carènes parasagittale et l'éminence bregmatique, ainsi qu'avec l'épaisseur osseuse est complexe. Dans ce contexte, le statut autapomorphe pour H. erectus des deux caractères analysés peut être rejeté. Néanmoins, nous avons identifié plusieurs schémas de distribution de l'épaisseur crânienne pour la partie supérieure de la voûte. Le schéma de distribution de l'épaisseur osseuse observé chez H. erectus, chez P. paniscus et probablement chez les australopithèques, premiers représentants du genre Homo et Homo ergaster/erectus africains comme nous avons pu l'observer sur quelques spécimens ici, apparait être partagé entre ces espèces et serait un caractère plésiomorphe au sein des hominidés. Au contraire, nous avons aussi identifié deux états apomorphes différents pour ce caractère, respectivement chez les Néandertaliens et chez Homo sapiens.
    Mots-clés : Cranial vault thickness, Endocranial anatomy, Hominin evolution, Imaging methodologies.

  • Balzeau, Antoine, et Rougier, Hélène.0 « New Information On The Modifications Of The Neandertal Suprainiac Fossa During Growth And Development And On Its Etiology ». American Journal of Physical Anthropology 151(1): 38–48.
    Résumé : The question of whether suprainiac depressions observed on Neandertals and in other human samples are homologous is widely discussed. Recently (Balzeau and Rougier, 2010), we ascertained the autapomorphic status of the Neandertal suprainiac fossa as a depression showing specific external bone features together with a thinning of the diploic layer with no substantial remodeling nor variation in the external table thickness. A suprainiac fossa with these characteristics is systematically present on Neandertals from the earliest developmental stages on, and since the beginning of the differentiation of the Neandertal lineage. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the micro-CT dataset (resolution of 50 μm) of the occipital bone of the La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal child, whose proposed age-at-death is around 2 years, and we compare it to the adult condition as represented by La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 (resolution of 122 μm). We describe and quantify the boundaries between the different structural layers of the occipital bone, namely the external and internal tables and the diploic layer. We also describe very fine details of the diploic layer structure that had never before been observed on fossil hominins. This study illustrates for the first time that the internal particularities that make the suprainiac fossa a Neandertal autapomorphy are evident early during growth and development. Moreover, we demonstrate that the developmental pattern and causes of expression for the features observed in modern humans and Neandertals are certainly different, indicating that these features are not homologous traits from evolutionary and functional perspectives. Consequently, we confirm the autapomorphic status of the Neandertal suprainiac fossa. Am J Phys Anthropol 151:38–48, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Mots-clés : diploic layer, homology, micro-CT, occipital bone, tabular tables.

  • Beck, Lucile, Genty, Dominique, Lahlil, Sophia, Lebon, Matthieu, Tereygeol, Florian, Vignaud, Colette, Reiche, Ina, Lambert, Elsa, Valladas, Hélène, et Kaltnecker, Evelyne.0 « Non-Destructive Portable Analytical Techniques For Carbon In-Situ Screening Before Sampling For Dating Prehistoric Rock Paintings ». Radiocarbon 55(2–3): 436–444.

  • Beyneix, Alain.0 « Néolithique: À L'aube De La Médecine Occidentale ». Archeologia (506): 52–60.

  • Biton, Rebecca, Geffen, Eli, Vences, Miguel, Cohen, Orly, Bailon, Salvador, Rabinovich, Rivka, Malka, Yoram, Oron, Talya, Boistel, Renaud, et Brumfeld, Vlad.0 « The Rediscovered Hula Painted Frog Is A Living Fossil ». Nature communications 4.

  • Blain, Hugues-Alexandre, Agustí, Jordi, López-García, Juan Manuel, Haddoumi, Hamid, Aouraghe, Hassan, Hammouti, Kamal El, Pérez-González, Alfredo, Chacón, María Gema, et Sala, Robert.0 « Amphibians And Squamate Reptiles From The Late Miocene (Vallesian) Of Eastern Morocco (Guefaït-1, Jerada Province) ». Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33(4): 804-816.
    Résumé : ABSTRACT The fossil amphibians and squamate reptiles from the late Miocene (Vallesian) of Guefaït-1 are described for the first time. The herpetofaunal assemblage is composed of Discoglossinae indet., Lacertidae indet., Dopasia sp. (Anguidae), Colubridae s. l. indet., and Naja cf. antiqua (Elapidae). This herpetofaunal assemblage is less diverse than the Moroccan herpetofauna from the middle and early late Miocene mainly because of the absence of Afro-tropical taxa, probably due to increasing aridity; likewise, it is less diverse than the Plio-Pleistocene herpetofauna, which was enriched by the entry of some European taxa during the Messinian Crisis. The presence of a discoglossine frog, different from all existing European and North African genera, in the late Miocene of Guefaït-1 suggests that the diversity of this group in the Miocene of North Africa may have been greater than previously thought. The occurrence of an anguid lizard of the genus Dopasia in the Miocene of Morocco is confirmed and may constitute the earliest record of the genus for Africa. The range of the cobra Naja antiqua, until now only known from the middle Miocene (Mellalesian) of Beni Mellal, Morocco, is extended; this constitutes the latest record of the species.

  • Borel, Antony, Gaillard, Claire, Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Sala, Robert, Pouydebat, Emmanuelle, Simanjuntak, Truman, et Sémah, François.0 « How To Interpret Informal Flakes Assemblages? Integrating Morphological Description, Usewear And Morphometric Analysis Gave Better Understanding Of The Behaviors Of Anatomically Modern Human From Song Terus (Indonesia) ». Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 32(4): 630-646.
    Résumé : Stone artifacts are the most numerous remains provided by early Holocene sites in Southeast Asia. They are thus of prime importance to understand better human behaviors of this region. However, they are typo-technologically difficult to characterize and consist mainly of informal flakes. This paper presents an innovative approach focusing on form and function to better assess the prehistoric use of stone tools in the region using a sample of flakes from the cave of Song Terus, Java, Indonesia. The integration of morphological description, usewear and morphometric analysis (Elliptical Fourier Analysis) allows a detailed characterization of tool use not possible with other methods. We demonstrate that a specific form of stone flake is not related to a particular function and vice versa. Our results show that tool production was not oriented towards the production of flakes of specific form, or to the production of flake blanks that could be modified by retouch but was a system where the control of flake shape was relaxed in favor of the selection of flakes suitable for particular tasks either during reduction or once core reduction had concluded.
    Mots-clés : Elliptical Fourier Analysis, Form, Function, Indonesia, Morphometry, Plant, Song Terus, Southeast Asia, Stone flake, Usewear.

  • Bover, Pere, Rofes, Juan, Bailon, Salvador, Agustí, Jordi, Cuenca-bescós, Gloria, Torres, Enric, et Alcover, Josep Antoni.0 « The Late Miocene/early Pliocene Vertebrate Fauna From Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean): An Update ». Integrative Zoology.

  • Coye, Noël, et Hurel, Arnaud.0 « L'archéologie Préhistorique Dans Les Pays De L'europe Du Sud: Dimension Européenne Et Dynamiques Nationales ». Bulletin du Musée d'anthropologie préhistorique de Monaco (53): 63–68.

  • Crégut-Bonnoure, Evelyne, Argant, Jacqueline, Bailon, Salvador, Boulbes, Nicolas, Bouville, Claude, Buisson-Catil, Jacques, Debard, Evelyne, Desclaux, Emmanuel, Fietzke, Jan, Fourvel, Jean-Baptiste, Frèrebeau, Nicolas, Kuntz, Delphine, Krzepkowska, Jadwiga, Laudet, Frédéric, Lachenal, Thibault, Lateur, Nicolas, Manzano, Alaric, Marciszak, Adrian, Margarit, Xavier, Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile, Oppliger, Julien, Roger, Thierry, Teacher, Amber G. F., et Thinon, Michel.0 « The Karst Of The Vaucluse, An Exceptional Record For The Last Glacial Maximum (Lgm) And The Late-Glacial Period Palaeoenvironment Of Southeastern France ». Quaternary International.
    Résumé : Investigations in four natural traps from southeastern France have provided new and extensive information on the palaeoenvironment from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21,000 to 15,075 cal BP), the Late-glacial period (15,075 to 11,490 cal BP) and the beginning of Holocene (11,490 to 2835 cal BP). Radiocarbon and U/Th dates provided precise chronological data. In the Coulet des Roches, an LGM and a near complete Late-glacial period sequence were identified. The infilling preserved skeletons of large mammals, revealing a new faunal assemblage for southeastern France. For the first time, two distinct southern expansions of Dicrostonyx torquatus have been identified, correlated firstly to the LGM and secondly to the Late-glacial period. Dicrostonyx torquatus was found to be associated with Microtus oeconemus during the Oldest Dryas (15,075 to 18,270 cal BP). Morphological adaptations to the cold climate were indicated by some mammals (Vulpes vulpes, Mustela nivalis, Mustela erminea, Equus caballus gallicus). Among the birds, Bubo scandiacus and Pyrrhocorax graculus were found to be abundant. Palynological data suggested a very open landscape as well as a cold and rather dry climate. Rangifer tarandus remains were recovered from the Oldest Dryas layers of Aven des Planes. During the Allerød, a wooded environment permitted the dispersal of Cervus elaphus, Sus scrofa, Tetrao urogallus as well as reptiles and amphibians. Holocene sequences existed in these two natural traps as in Aven Souche n° 1 and n° 2. At this time, a sparsely wooded landscape covered much of the area. Cervus elaphus and Tetrao urogallus were still present with Canis lupus, Lynx lynx and Felis silvestris. Areas of open landscape were occupied by Otis tarda. During the Bronze Age (2200 to 800 cal BC) and Iron Age (800 to 50 cal BC), Aven des Planes, Aven Souche n° 1 and n° 2 were used by humans and had a sepulchral destination.

  • Détroit, Florent, Corny, Julien, Dizon, Eusebio Z., et Mijares, Armand S.0 « “Small Size” In The Philippine Human Fossil Record: Is It Meaningful For A Better Understanding Of The Evolutionary History Of The Negritos? ». Human Biology 85(1-3): 45-66.
    Résumé : Abstract “Pygmy populations” are recognized in several places over the world, especially in Western Africa and in Southeast Asia (Philippine “negritos,” for instance). Broadly defined as “small-bodied Homo sapiens” (compared with neighboring populations), their origins and the nature of the processes involved in the maintenance of their phenotype over time are highly debated. Major results have been recently obtained from population genetics on present-day negrito populations, but their evolutionary history remains largely unresolved. We present and discuss the Upper Pleistocene human remains recovered from Tabon Cave and Callao Cave in the Philippines, which are potentially highly relevant to these research questions. Human fossils have been recovered in large numbers from Tabon Cave (Palawan Island) but mainly from reworked and mixed sediments from several archaeological layers. We review and synthesize the long and meticulous collaborative work done on the archives left from the 1960s excavations and on the field. The results demonstrate the long history of human occupations in the cave, since at least ∼30,000 BP. The examination of the Tabon human remains shows a large variability: large and robust for one part of the sample, and small and gracile for the other part. The latter would fit quite comfortably within the range of variation of Philippine negritos. Farther north, on Luzon Island, the human third metatarsal recently recovered from Callao Cave and dated to ∼66,000 BP is now the oldest direct evidence of human presence in the Philippines. Previous data show that, compared with H. sapiens (including Philippine negritos), this bone presents a very small size and several unusual morphological characteristics. We present a new analytical approach using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics for comparing the Callao fossil to a wide array of extant Asian mammals, including nonhuman primates and H. sapiens. The results demonstrate that the shape of the Callao metatarsal is definitely closer to humans than to any other groups. The fossil clearly belongs to the genus Homo; however, it remains at the margin of the variation range of H. sapiens. Because of its great antiquity and the presence of another diminutive species of the genus Homo in the Wallace area during this time period (H. floresiensis), we discuss here in detail the affinities and potential relatedness of the Callao fossil with negritos that are found today on Luzon Island.

  • de Lumley, Marie-Antoinette, et Giacobini, Giacomo.0 « Les Néandertaliens De La Caverna Delle Fate (Finale Ligure, Italie). Ii–Les Dents ». L'Anthropologie 117(3): 305–344.

  • de Lumley, Marie-Antoinette, et Giacobini, Giacomo.0 « Les Néandertaliens De La Caverna Delle Fate (Finale Ligure, Italie). I-Chronostratigraphie, Restes Squelettiques ». L'Anthropologie 117(3): 273–304.

  • Ecker, Michaela, Bocherens, Hervé, Julien, Marie-Anne, Rivals, Florent, Raynal, Jean-Paul, et Moncel, Marie-Hélène.0 « Middle Pleistocene Ecology And Neanderthal Subsistence: Insights From Stable Isotope Analyses In Payre (Ardèche, Southeastern France) ». Journal of Human Evolution 65(4): 363-373.
    Résumé : The Middle Palaeolithic site of Payre in southeastern France yields abundant archaeological material associated with fossil hominid remains. With its long sequence of Middle Pleistocene deposits, Payre is a key site to study the Middle Palaeolithic chronology of this region. This study is the first to investigate carbon and oxygen isotope contents of Neanderthal tooth enamel bioapatite, together with a wide range of herbivorous and carnivorous species. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of hunting behaviour, resource partitioning, diet and habitat use of animals and Neanderthals through a palaeoecological reconstruction. Local topography had a visible influence on carbon and oxygen stable isotope values recorded in herbivore tooth enamel. This was used to investigate possible habitats of herbivores. The different herbivorous species do not show large variations of their carbon and oxygen isotope values through time, indicating niche conservatism from OIS 8–7 to OIS 6–5, i.e., independently of palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental variations. Based on these new observations, we conclude that Neanderthals employed a stable subsistence strategy over time, using a variety of local resources, with resource partitioning visible between humans and carnivores, especially wolves. A comparison of the results of stable isotopic investigation with the results of tooth wear analyses previously conducted on the same teeth allowed us to demonstrate that grazing and browsing do not bind animals to a specific habitat in a C3 environment as reflected in the isotopic values.
    Mots-clés : Carbon isotopes, Diet, Middle Palaeolithic, Oxygen isotopes, Rhône valley, Southeastern France.

  • Falguères, Christophe, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Bischoff, James L., Pérez-González, Alfredo, Ortega, Ana Isabel, Ollé, Andreu, Quiles, Anita, Ghaleb, Bassam, Moreno, Davinia, Dolo, Jean-Michel, Shao, Qingfeng, Vallverdú, Josep, Carbonell, Eudald, Bermúdez de Castro, Jose María, et Arsuaga, Juan Luis.0 « Combined Esr/u-Series Chronology Of Acheulian Hominid-Bearing Layers At Trinchera Galería Site, Atapuerca, Spain ». Journal of Human Evolution 65(2): 168-184.
    Résumé : The Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain, is known from many prehistoric and palaeontological sites documenting human prehistory in Europe. Three major sites, Gran Dolina, Galería and Sima del Elefante, range in age from the oldest hominin of Western Europe dated to 1.1 to 1.3 Ma (millions of years ago) at Sima del Elefante to c.a. 0.2 Ma on the top of the Galería archaeological sequence. Recently, a chronology based on luminescence methods (Thermoluminescence [TL] and Infrared Stimulated Luminescence [IRSL]) applied to cave sediments was published for the Gran Dolina and Galería sites. The authors proposed for Galería an age of 450 ka (thousands of years ago) for the units lower GIII and GII, suggesting that the human occupation there is younger than the hominid remains of Sima de los Huesos (>530 ka) around 1 km away. In this paper, we present new results obtained by combined Electron Spin Resonance/Uranium-series (ESR/U-series) dating on 20 herbivorous teeth from different levels at the Galería site. They are in agreement with the TL results for the upper part of the stratigraphic sequence (GIV and GIIIb), in the range of between 200 and 250 ka. But for the GIIIa to GIIb levels, the TL ages become abruptly older by 200 ka while ESR ages remain relatively constant. Finally, the TL and ESR data agree in the lowest part of the section (GIIa); both fall in the range of around 350–450 ka. Our results suggest a different interpretation for the GII, GIII and GIV units of Galería and the upper part of Gran Dolina (TD10 and TD11) than obtained by TL. The ESR/U-series results are supported by a Bayesian analysis, which allows a better integration between stratigraphic information and radiometric data.
    Mots-clés : Bayesian analysis, Eurasia, Gran Dolina, Homo antecessor, Luminescence, Middle Pleistocene.

  • Fernandes, Paul, Raynal, Jean-Paul, Tallet, Pascal, Tuffery, Christophe, Piboule, Michel, Séronie-Vivien, Micheline, Séronie-Vivien, Marie-Roger, Turq, Alain, Morala, André, Affolter, Jehanne, Millet, Dominique, Millet, Françoise, Bazile, Fréderic, Schmidt, Patrick, Foucher, Pascal, Delvigne, Vincent, Liagre, Jérémie, Gaillot, Stéphane, Morin, Alexandre, Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Garnier, Jean-François, et Léandri-Bressy, Céline.0 « Une Carte Et Une Base De Données Pour Les Formations À Silex Du Sud De La France : Un Outil Pour La Pétroarchéologie ». PALEO. Revue d'archéologie préhistorique (24): 219-228.
    Résumé : Une carte des principales formations à silex du sud de la France est en cours de réalisation. Elle propose, à tous les préhistoriens, une base nécessaire au développement d’études interrégionales sur la circulation des silex. Elle est le fruit d’une collaboration entre des acteurs impliqués dans la problématique de caractérisation de la provenance des silex. Elle regroupe les résultats de leurs prospections systématiques ou ciblées dans six régions (Aquitaine, Auvergne, Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrénées, Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur, Rhône-Alpes). Elle intègre, en plus, le dépouillement d’un grand nombre de documents : i) les principaux articles et thèses traitant des formations à silex du sud de la France ; ii) plus de 200 fiches issues de la base de données du sous-sol BSS du BRGM, qui permettent de visualiser des logs ou des documents scannés ; iii) 529 cartes géologiques à 1/50 000 et leurs notices. La carte est organisée en trois couches de données superposables : une carte des affleurements ou gîtes primaires, une carte des altérites et des formations superficielles remaniées et une carte des formations alluviales. La carte existera dans deux versions numériques aisément actualisables : une version dans un format PDF et une version sous la forme d’un SIG. C’est l’ensemble de la formation contenant le ou les même(s) type(s) de silex qui est prise en compte, le terme de formation désignant un terrain possédant des caractères communs et qui constitue un ensemble cartographiable. Chacune des formations recensées fait l’objet d’une notice simplifiée qui décrit l’encaissant et - le ou les - type(s) de silex présent(s). Ces notices descriptives et explicatives contiennent des photos à toutes les échelles (de la formation à l’échelle microscopique). Des références bibliographiques géologiques et archéologiques complèteront chaque notice. La version définitive de ces notices constituera un atlas. Les archéologues et géologues disposeront ainsi de fiches descriptives pour chaque type de silex et son encaissant. Elles serviront aux diagnoses analytiques (structures, textures et compositions minéralogiques).
    Mots-clés : base de données, carte, pétroarchéologie, Silex.

  • Fontana, F., Moncel, M. -H., Nenzioni, G., Onorevoli, G., Peretto, C., et Combier, J.0 « Widespread Diffusion Of Technical Innovations Around 300,000 Years Ago In Europe As A Reflection Of Anthropological And Social Transformations? New Comparative Data From The Western Mediterranean Sites Of Orgnac (France) And Cave Dall’Olio (Italy) ». Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 32(4): 478-498.
    Résumé : During MIS (Marine Isotope Stage) 9 and the transition to MIS 8 – around 350–300,000 years ago – some lithic assemblages in Europe reflect marked transformations in technical behavior. These transformations involved the standardization of products and the development of diversified and elaborated débitage methods which are considered to be markers of the transition from the Lower to the Middle Palaeolithic i.e. from Mode 2 to Mode 3. Taking the analysis of the sites of Orgnac 3 (Ardèche, France) and Cave dall’Olio (Emilia Romagna, Italy) as a starting point, this paper discusses the variability of these assemblages in Southern Europe as well as the social and anthropological implications of the emergence of new technical behavior. It also aims to show that common features existed both in Northern and Southern Europe. The development of more complex technical systems on a progressively wider territory and at an increasingly earlier age argues in favor of the hypothesis of a close connection with the process of “Neanderthalisation”, possibly accompanied by the transmission of ideas through extensive social networks.
    Mots-clés : Early Middle Palaeolithic, Laminar débitage, Levallois débitage, Marine Isotopic Stage 9, Social interactions, Southern Europe, Technical behavior.

  • Forestier, Hubert, Zeitoun, Valéry, Winayalai, Chinnawut, et Métais, Christophe.0 « The Open-Air Site Of Huai Hin (Northwestern Thailand): Chronological Perspectives For The Hoabinhian ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 12(1): 45–55.

  • Frouin, Marine, Ploquin, Florian, Soressi, Marie, Rendu, William, Macchiarelli, Roberto, El Albani, Abderrazak, et Meunier, Alain.0 « Clay Minerals Of Late Pleistocene Sites (Jonzac And Les Cottés, Sw France): Applications Of X-Ray Diffraction Analyses To Local Paleoclimatic And Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions ». Quaternary International 302: 184–198.

  • Gómez-Olivencia, Asier, Garralda, María Dolores, Vandermeersch, Bernard, Madelaine, Stéphane, Arsuaga, Juan-Luis, et Maureille, Bruno.0 « Two Newly Identified Mousterian Human Rib Fragments From Combe-Grenal (Domme, France) ». PALEO. Revue d'archéologie préhistorique (24): 229-234.
    Résumé : Cet article présente la découverte et l’étude de deux nouveaux restes humains provenant du site moustérien de Combe-Grenal situé sur la commune de Domme en Dordogne. Il s’agit de deux fragments de côtes mis au jour dans la couche 25 des fouilles Bordes qui livre du Moustérien de type Quina. L’un d’eux est certainement un fragment de la première côte droite d’un adulte. Le second est un fragment d’une côte de rang élevé (8e ou 9e) d’un adolescent. Même si, en raison de leur état de conservation, aucune de ces pièces ne montre de trait dérivé néandertalien, elles représentent les premiers éléments appartenant au tronc humain découverts dans le site et augmentent ainsi la diversité des éléments osseux connus. Notons enfin que le NMI ne change pas. La première côte adulte montre des traces de manipulations post-mortem anthropiques. Néandertalien, Combe-Grenal, Moustérien, côte
    Mots-clés : Combe-Grenal, Mousterian, Neandertal, rib.

  • Goepfert, Nicolas, Bailon, Salvador, Lefèvre, Christine, et Gutiérrez, Belkys.0 « Depósitos Funerarios De Anfisbenios O “Serpientes De Dos Cabezas” En La Plataforma Uhle, Huacas De Moche, Perú ». Anthropozoologica 48(2): 487–505.

  • Hardy, Bruce L., Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Daujeard, Camille, Fernandes, Paul, Béarez, Philippe, Desclaux, Emmanuel, Chacon Navarro, Maria Gema, Puaud, Simon, et Gallotti, Rosalia.0 « Impossible Neanderthals? Making String, Throwing Projectiles And Catching Small Game During Marine Isotope Stage 4 (Abri Du Maras, France) ». Quaternary Science Reviews 82: 23-40.
    Résumé : Neanderthal behavior is often described in one of two contradictory ways: 1) Neanderthals were behaviorally inflexible and specialized in large game hunting or 2) Neanderthals exhibited a wide range of behaviors and exploited a wide range of resources including plants and small, fast game. Using stone tool residue analysis with supporting information from zooarchaeology, we provide evidence that at the Abri du Maras, Ardèche, France, Neanderthals were behaviorally flexible at the beginning of MIS 4. Here, Neanderthals exploited a wide range of resources including large mammals, fish, ducks, raptors, rabbits, mushrooms, plants, and wood. Twisted fibers on stone tools provide evidence of making string or cordage. Using a variety of lines of evidence, we show the presence of stone projectile tips, possibly used in complex projectile technology. This evidence shows a level of behavioral variability that is often denied to Neanderthals. Furthermore, it sheds light on perishable materials and resources that are not often recovered which should be considered more fully in reconstructions of Neanderthal behavior.
    Mots-clés : Residue analysis, Stone tools, String, Subsistence, Zooarchaeology.

  • Henry-Gambier, Dominique, Nespoulet, Roland, et Chiotti, Laurent.0 « Attribution Culturelle Au Gravettien Ancien Des Fossiles Humains De L’Abri Cro-Magnon (Les Eyzies-De-Tayac, Dordogne, France) ». PALEO. Revue d'archéologie préhistorique (24): 121-138.
    Résumé : En 2002, la datation 14C par SMA d’un coquillage percé (Littorina littorea) associé aux squelettes découverts en 1868 dans l’abri Cro-Magnon conduisait à rajeunir ces fossiles, attribués depuis leur découverte à l’Aurignacien ancien. Cette date indiquait que le sommet de la séquence archéologique de l’abri Cro-Magnon comportait des niveaux Aurignacien récent et/ou Gravettien. Cette date, Beta 157439 : 27680 ± 270 BP (31 324-32 666 cal BP), est comprise dans un intervalle coïncidant soit avec une phase récente de l’Aurignacien soit avec le Gravettien ancien (Henry-Gambier 2002). Un réexamen de la séquence gravettienne de l’abri Pataud, situé à moins de 300 m en aval de l’abri Cro-Magnon sur la même rive de la Vézère, de ses nouvelles datations 14C ainsi que de ses parures gravettiennes permet aujourd’hui d’asseoir solidement l’appartenance des fossiles de Cro-Magnon au Gravettien ancien.
    Mots-clés : Cro-Magnon, Dordogne, Gravettien, Homo Sapiens Sapiens, parure, Pataud, Sépulture.

  • Ladurée, Jean-René, Pigeaud, Romain, Betton, Jean-Pierre, et Berrouet, Florian.0 « Du Paléolithique Au Paléographique: Étude Des Graffiti Modernes Dans La Grotte Margot (Thorigné-En-Charnie, Mayenne) ». Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française 110(4): 605–621.

  • Liu, Chun-Ru, Yin, Gong-Ming, Fang, Fang, Voinchet, Pierre, Deng, Cheng-Long, Han, Fei, Li, Jian-Ping, Song, Wei-Juan, Wang, Duo, et Bahain, Jean-Jacques.0 « Esr Dating Of The Donggutuo Palaeolithic Site In The Nihewan Basin, Northern China ». Geochronometria 40(4): 348-354.
    Résumé : The fluvio-lacustrine sequences in the Nihewan Basin, northern China, provide important terrestrial archives about Palaeolithic settlements and, therefore, about early human occupation in high northern latitude in East Asia. Here we present detailed ESR dating of the Donggutuo Palaeolithic site, located in this basin. Four levels A, B, C and E of the Donggutuo archaeological layer yield ESR ages ranging from 1060±129 ka to 1171±132 ka with a mean of 1119±132 ka. The ages are consistent with the paleomagnetic data, which show that the Donggutuo Palaeolithic site lies just below the onset of the Jaramillo normal subchron (0.99–1.07 Ma). Furthermore, our results indicate that the reliable ESR dating range of bleached quartz using Ti-Li centre can be effectively extended to 1100 ka and the Ti-Li centre was zeroed before the last deposition, which requires improvement of the understanding of the bleaching mechanism conditions.
    Mots-clés : Early Pleistocene, Earth Sciences, general, Environmental Monitoring/Analysis, ESR dating, fluvial sediment, Palaeolithic site, Quantitative Geology, signal bleaching.

  • Liu, Chun-Ru, Yin, Gong-Ming, Zhang, Hui-Ping, Zheng, Wen-Jun, Voinchet, Pierre, Han, Fei, Wang, Duo, Song, Wei-Juan, et Bahain, Jean-Jacques.0 « Esr Geochronology Of The Minjiang River Terraces At Wenchuan, Eastern Margin Of Tibetan Plateau, China ». Geochronometria 40(4): 360-367.
    Résumé : The Minjiang River terrace along the Longmen Shan fault zone near Wenchuan, at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China, provides archives for tectonic activity and quaternary climate change. However, previous studies were not able to provide ages older than 100 ka due to the limitations of dating material or/and methods applied to date the fluvial sediments. In this study, we used the ESR signal of the Ti-Li center in quartz to obtain the ages of four higher terraces (T3–T6). According to the results, the terraces T3 to T6 were formed at 64±19 ka, 101±15 ka, 153±33 ka, and 423±115 ka, respectively. Combined with previous studies, these results indicate that the formations of all terraces correspond to glacial/interglacial transition periods, such as, T1-T5 being correlated to MIS2/1, MIS4/3, MIS5d/5c, and MIS6/5e respectively, while T6 probably to MIS12/11. According to these data, it is found that the average incision rate was significantly higher over the last 150 ka than that previous 100 ka (250 to 150 ka). As both tectonics and climate have affected the formation of these terraces, in addition to the overall uplifting of Tibetan Plateau, the regional uplift due to isostasy would be an additional tectonic factor in the formation of river terraces in the eastern margin of Tibetan plateau.
    Mots-clés : Earth Sciences, general, Environmental Monitoring/Analysis, ESR dating, Minjiang River, Quantitative Geology, Quartz, river terrace, Tibetan plateau.

  • Magniez, Pierre, Moigne, Anne-Marie, Testu, Agnès, et De Lumley, Henry.0 « Biochronologie Des Mammifères Quaternaires. Apport Des Cervidae Du Site Pléistocène Moyen De La Caune De L'arago (Tautavel, Pyrénées-Orientales, France) ». Quaternaire 24(4): 477–502.

  • Manaa, Abdessalam, Souttou, Karim, Sekour, Makhlouf, Bendjoudi, Djamel, Guezoul, Omar, Baziz-Neffah, Fadila, Doumandji, Salaheddine, Stoetzel, Emmanuelle, et Denys, Christiane.0 « Diet Of Black-Shouldered Kite Elanus Caeruleus In A Farmland Area Near Algiers, Algeria ». Ostrich 84(2): 113-117.
    Résumé : The diet of the Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus was analysed in a recently colonised area in Meftah, south-eastern Algiers, Algeria. The diet was determined by analysing 144 pellets. Our data showed that the diet was dominated by rodents with Algerian mouse Mus spretus comprising between 61% and 77% of the diet. Based on relative biomass, rodents were the main prey species, comprising 88.1% of the diet in 2006, 68.4% in 2007 and 52.0% in 2008. Birds were the second-most important prey, comprising as much as 43.4% of the diet in 2008. The Algerian mouse was the major prey species both in spring (60.0% in 2007) and in summer (80.0% in 2006).

  • Mercier, Norbert, Valladas, Hélène, Falguères, Christophe, Shao, Qingfeng, Gopher, Avi, Barkai, Ran, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Vialettes, Laurence, Joron, Jean-Louis, et Reyss, Jean-Louis.0 « New Datings Of Amudian Layers At Qesem Cave (Israel): Results Of Tl Applied To Burnt Flints And Esr/u-Series To Teeth ». Journal of Archaeological Science 40(7): 3011-3020.
    Résumé : Because only a few radiometric data are actually available, the chronology of the Amudian – a blade-dominated industry of the Acheulo-Yabrudian Cultural Complex (AYCC) of the late Lower Paleolithic in the Levant – is still not well constrained. Qesem Cave offers the opportunity to enhance our knowledge of the chronological position of this industry which is unique to the Levant. The Qesem Amudian bearing layers yielded also human remains showing affinities with those of modern populations recovered in the Middle Paleolithic sites of Skhul and Qafzeh. The results presented here are the first attempt to apply the TL and ESR/U-series dating methods at this site and these methods yielded results which are generally in agreement. They support a time interval of hominid-bearing occupation of the areas of the cave where Amudian lithic artifacts were recovered during MIS 8 and likely 9 for the Deep Pit Area, and during MIS 8 and possibly 7 for the Upper part of the sequence (Square K/10 and the Eastern Microfauna-Bearing Area). An older occupation of the cave is also conceivable on the base of two dating results (MIS 11).
    Mots-clés : Acheuleo-Yabrudian, Amudian, Burnt flint, dating, Levant, Qesem Cave, teeth.

  • Messager, Erwan, Belmecheri, Soumaya, Von Grafenstein, Ulrich, Nomade, Sébastien, Ollivier, Vincent, Voinchet, Pierre, Puaud, Simon, Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra, Guillou, Hervé, Mgeladze, Ana, Dumoulin, Jean-Pascal, Mazuy, Arnaud, et Lordkipanidze, David.0 « Late Quaternary Record Of The Vegetation And Catchment-Related Changes From Lake Paravani (Javakheti, South Caucasus) ». Quaternary Science Reviews 77: 125-140.
    Résumé : Here we present a palynological and sedimentological record from a 96-cm sediment core covering the last 13 ka aiming to document palaeoecological changes in the central South Caucasus driven by climate and/or human impact. The core was retrieved from Lake Paravani (2073 m asl, 41°27′N, 43°48′E), located in the steppic grasslands of South Caucasus in the Samsari-Javakheti volcanic plateau. The geomorphological features observed on the plateau, including moraine deposits, suggest the presence of local glaciers reaching the lake level during the Last Glacial periods. Based on sediment and pollen data, three palaeoecological phases have been identified. The first phase spanning the Younger Dryas and the Early Holocene, corresponds to a steppic environment with a limited lake productivity driven by a cold and particularly dry climate. According to the Age–depth model, this phase ends near 8500 cal BP with the decline of Chenopodiaceae. The second phase starts with an important expansion of trees at 8300 cal years BP. The delayed afforestation recorded in Lake Paravani is a pattern that has now been recognised widely through the Black Sea region's more continental areas. As soon as the climatic and edaphic conditions were favourable, the main deciduous and coniferous trees expanded concurrently due to the proximity of glacial forest refugia located in western Caucasus. This second phase marked by a climatic optimum is also characterized by an increase in lake productivity. The third phase starts at 2000–3000 cal BP and corresponds to the decline of forests on the plateau and the expansion of herbaceous formations, leading to the present-day steppic environment. This deforestation phase is driven by the deterioration of the climate conditions and human impact.
    Mots-clés : Glacial tree refugia, Holocene, Lateglacial, Local glacier, South Caucasus.

  • Messili, Lamia, Saliège, Jean-François, Broutin, Jean, Messager, Erwan, Hatté, Christine, et Zazzo, Antoine.0 « Direct 14C Dating Of Early And Mid-Holocene Saharan Pottery ». Radiocarbon 55(3–4).

  • Michel, Véronique, Shen, Guanjun, Shen, Chuan-Chou, Wu, Chung-Che, Vérati, Chrystèle, Gallet, Sylvain, Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Combier, Jean, Khatib, Samir, et Manetti, Michel.0 « Application Of U/th And 40Ar/39Ar Dating To Orgnac 3, A Late Acheulean And Early Middle Palaeolithic Site In Ardèche, France ». PLoS ONE 8(12): e82394.
    Résumé : Refined radio-isotopic dating techniques have been applied to Orgnac 3, a Late Acheulean and Early Middle Palaeolithic site in France. Evidence of Levallois core technology appeared in level 4b in the middle of the sequence, became predominant in the upper horizons, and was best represented in uppermost level 1, making the site one of the oldest examples of Levallois technology. In our dating study, fourteen speleothem samples from levels 7, 6 and 5b, were U/Th-dated. Four pure calcite samples from the speleothem PL1 (levels 5b, 6) yield ages between 265 ± 4 (PL1-3) and 312 ± 15 (PL1-6) thousand years ago (ka). Three samples from the top of a second stalagmite, PL2, yield dates ranging from 288 ± 10 ka (PL2-1) to 298 ± 17 ka (PL2-3). Three samples from the base of PL2 (level 7) yield much younger U/Th dates between 267 and 283 ka. These dates show that the speleothems PL1 and PL2 are contemporaneous and formed during marine isotope stage (MIS) 9 and MIS 8. Volcanic minerals in level 2, the upper sequence, were dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method, giving a weighted mean of 302.9 ± 2.5 ka (2σ) and an inverse isochron age of 302.9 ± 5.9 ka (2σ). Both 40Ar/39Ar dating of volcanic sanidines and U/Th dating of relatively pure and dense cave calcites are known to be well established. The first parallel application of the two geochronometers to Orgnac 3 yields generally consistent results, which point to the reliability of the two methods. The difference between their age results is discussed.

  • Moncel, M. -H., Pleurdeau, D., Tushubramishvili, N., Yeshurun, R., Agapishvili, T., Pinhasi, R., et Higham, T. F. G.0 « Preliminary Results From The New Excavations Of The Middle And Upper Palaeolithic Levels At Ortvale Klde-North Chamber (South Caucasus Georgia) ». Quaternary International 316: 3-13.
    Résumé : Ortvale Klde is a key cave site which provides detailed archaeological and chronological information about Middle and Upper Palaeolithic occupation in the southern Caucasus, and the timing of the Middle–Upper Palaeolithic transition in this region. Excavations have mostly focused on the southern chamber, and an extensive dating programme suggests the demise of the Neanderthals, followed by a hiatus and the rapid occupation of the area by modern Humans at around 38–34 ka BP. New excavations in the northern chamber by a French–Georgian team took place in 2006, in order to better understand the stratigraphy of this part of the cave, which contributes to the understanding of the Middle Palaeolithic in the southern Caucasus and its significance in a broader pan-regional context. This paper reports the results of the 2006 fieldwork carried out in the northern chamber: three Middle Palaeolithic units and one Upper Palaeolithic unit have been observed in several test pits inside the cave and on the slope in front of the cave. Middle Palaeolithic lithic assemblages are composed of elongated points and various core technologies have been described, close to what is observed at Drjujula and Bronze caves. Apparent correlations between the stratigraphic sequences of the two chambers and associated lithic and bone assemblages are discussed. Several hypotheses on the type of human occupations in relation to the morphology of the two chambers of the cave are presented. The very different nature of the sequences in the northern and southern chambers possibly imply differences in both intensity and timing of human occupation of each chamber, as well as some differences in site formation processes. The main test pit at the base of the sequence yielded lithics that have some different traits when compared to those observed at the base of the sequence in the southern chamber. This could signify an older age for these base levels, but also very different occupation modes in the two chambers, as also indicated by the differential faunal preservation. However, in contrast to the lithic assemblages, the faunal assemblages of the base of the sequence in each of the two chambers do not show differences in subsistence strategies and hence suggest consistent subsistence behaviour.

  • Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Despriée, Jackie, Voinchet, Pierre, Tissoux, Hélène, Moreno, Davinia, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Courcimault, Gilles, et Falguères, Christophe.0 « Early Evidence Of Acheulean Settlement In Northwestern Europe - La Noira Site, A 700 000 Year-Old Occupation In The Center Of France ». PLoS ONE 8(11): e75529.
    Résumé : The human settlement of Europe during Pleistocene times was sporadic and several stages have been recognized, both from paleaoanthropological and archaeological records. If the first phase of hominin occupation (as early as 1.4 Ma) seems mainly restricted to the southern part of the continent, the second phase, characterized by specific lithic tools (handaxes), is linked to Acheulean settlements and to the emergence of Homo heidelbergensis, the ancestor of Neanderthals. This phase reached northwestern Europe and is documented in numerous sites in Germany, Great Britain and northern France, generally after 600 ka.At la Noira (Brinay, Central France), the Middle Pleistocene alluvial formation of the Cher River covers an archaeological level associated with a slope deposit (diamicton). The lithic assemblage from this level includes Large Cutting Tools (LCTs), flakes and cores, associated with numerous millstone slabs. The lithic series is classified as Acheulean on the basis of both technological and typological analyses. Cryoturbation features indicate that the slope deposits and associated archaeological level were strongly frozen and disturbed after hominin occupation and before fluvial deposition. Eight sediment samples were dated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) method and the weighted average age obtained for the fluvial sands overlying the slope deposits is 665±55 ka. This age is older than previous chronological data placing the first European Acheulean assemblages north of 45th parallel north at around 500 ka and modifies our current vision of the initial peopling of northern Europe. Acheulean settlements are older than previously assumed and the oldest evidences are not only located in southern Europe. La Noira is the oldest evidence of Acheulean presence in north-western Europe and attests to the possibility of pioneering phases of Acheulean settlement which would have taken place on a Mode 1-type substratum as early as 700 ka. The lithic assemblage from la Noira thus provides behavioral and technological data on early Acheulean occupation in Europe and contributes to our understanding of the diffusion of this tradition.

  • Monchot, Hervé, Houmard, Claire, Dionne, Marie-Michelle, Desrosiers, Pierre M., et Gendron, Daniel.0 « The Modus Operandi Of Walrus Exploitation During The Palaeoeskimo Period At The Tayara Site, Arctic Canada ». Anthropozoologica 48(1): 15-36.
    Résumé : ABSTRACT Thanks to its high nutritional potential and huge ivory canines, walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) appears to have been a key resource in the subsistence economy of Dorset groups. However present archaeological data are sparse and a more global analysis of its exploitation by the Palaeoeskimos is required. The Tayara site (KbFk-7) in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada) yielded a significant assemblage of walrus bones and many manufactured ivory objects. In addition, Tayara serves as a reference site in Eastern Arctic cultural chronology. A thorough zooarchaeological study has been conducted which includes skeletal profile, the sexing and ageing of walrus bones, and a technological study of the manufactured objects, including a use-wear analysis on lithic tools. This allows the discussion of several aspects of the modus operandi for the exploitation of walrus, from the death of the animal to the processing of the raw material into artefacts. Even if the walrus seems to have been treated with the same processes as other species, some specificities have been noted, particularly in the selection of the different skeletal elements for tool productions and the emblematic value that this animal may have played in consumption and production activities. , RÉSUMÉ Le modus operandi de l'exploitation du morse sur le site Paléoesquimau de Tayara (Rive sud du détroit d'Hudson, Canada). Le morse (Odobenus rosmarus) est très apprécié des peuples arctiques, en particulier pour son grand potentiel nutritionnel et pour ses canines proéminentes. Au Dorsétien, l'exploitation de cet animal a été particulièrement valorisée, notamment à Tayara (KbFk-7), l'un des plus prestigieux sites paléoesquimaux. Localisé au nord du Nunavik (Québec, Canada), le niveau II de Tayara a livré une preuve évidente de chasse au morse ainsi qu'un très grand nombre de restes fauniques et d'objets fabriqués sur dents ou os de morse. Une exploitation diversifiée et généralisée des carcasses a été mise en évidence. Les études consacrées au morse étant encore limitées, nous avons entrepris une approche originale, globale et multidisciplinaire, permettant de reconstituer le modus operandi de la chaîne d'exploitation d'une carcasse. Les résultats de l'archéozoologie, de la technologie osseuse et de la tracéologie lithique ont ainsi été combinés. L'archéozoologie a permis de retrouver le profil squelettique, le sexe et l'âge des individus apportés entiers sur le site (i.e., six individus des deux sexes, souvent adultes). L'examen technologique a montré que les défenses et os de morse étaient travaillés selon les mêmes procédés techniques que pour les autres espèces. Cependant, les intentions de production étaient plus ciblées, privilégiant la fabrication des armes de chasse et des objets àvaleur de signe. L'étude tracéologique a confirmé que toutes les activités touchant à l'exploitation du morse ont bien été menées sur le site de Tayara.

  • Orain, R., Lebreton, V., Ermolli, E. Russo, Combourieu-Nebout, N., et Sémah, A. -M.0 « Carya As Marker For Tree Refuges In Southern Italy (Boiano Basin) At The Middle Pleistocene ». Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 369: 295-302.
    Résumé : The Carya genus, a tree of the Juglandaceae family, has a restricted geographical distribution today, mainly confined to North America and Southeast Asia and with a precise range of ecological requirements. During the Neogene, Carya had a wide distribution across the northern hemisphere; however, its habitat was reduced progressively in response to Pliocene and Quaternary climate changes. In the Early and Middle Pleistocene paleobotanical records, Carya is considered a relic which testifies to the final climatic deterioration of the Pliocene and to the global effect of the Quaternary climate cycles. The lacustrine and fluvio-palustrine sequence of Boiano (Molise, Italy) records the paleoenvironmental and climate changes since the Middle Pleistocene. The chronological framework is based on several tephra layers, related to known eruptions or directly dated, and indicates that the basal deposits are older than 440 ka. Palynological study of the sedimentary filling highlights vegetation changes from Oxygen Isotopic Stage (OIS) 13 to 2. The Boiano biotope, characterized by a continuous edaphic and climatic humidity, favored the persistence of hygrophilous tree taxa. Thus, Carya is present until the OIS 9, which represents its latest occurrence in Western Europe. The Boiano basin could have been an ecological refuge for the Middle Pleistocene arboreal flora. In fact, the physiography of the basin certainly softened the impacts of climatic deterioration during glacial episodes. Therefore, the late Carya occurrence within the Boiano palynological record in a time period when it is commonly supposed to be extinct from Europe, leads to a consideration of its ecological requirements as a tool for Quaternary paleoenvironmental reconstructions and for identification of refuge areas.
    Mots-clés : Ecological refuge, Hickory, Mediterranean, paleoecology, Paleoenvironment, Palynology, Quaternary vegetation, Tertiary relic.

  • Orain, R., Lebreton, V., Russo Ermolli, E., Sémah, A.-M., Nomade, S., Shao, Q., Bahain, J.-J., Thun Hohenstein, U., et Peretto, C.0 « Hominin Responses To Environmental Changes During The Middle Pleistocene In Central And Southern Italy ». Clim. Past 9(2): 687-697.
    Résumé : The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT)", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41- to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favourable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka), La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka), Guado San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka) or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka) testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma Basin (ca. 300 ka). Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviours benefited from a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional- and local-scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano Basin (Molise, Italy) attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between MIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka). In this basin the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favoured the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities during the Middle Pleistocene. This could have constrained human groups to migrate into such a propitious area. Regarding the local climate evolution during the glacial episodes, the supposed displacement from these sites could be linked to the environmental dynamics solely due to the aridity increase, rather than directly to the global climate changes.

  • Ossa Ossa, Frantz, El Albani, Abderrazak, Hofmann, Axel, Bekker, Andrey, Gauthier-Lafaye, François, Pambo, Florent, Meunier, Alain, Fontaine, Claude, Boulvais, Philippe, Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine, Cavalazzi, Barbara, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « Exceptional Preservation Of Expandable Clay Minerals In The Ca. 2.1 Ga Black Shales Of The Francevillian Basin, Gabon And Its Implication For Atmospheric Oxygen Accumulation ». Chemical Geology 362: 181-192.
    Résumé : Clay minerals are exceptionally well preserved in marine black shale of the ca. 2.1 Ga Francevillian Group in southeastern Gabon. The FB Formation of the Francevillian Group is characterized by smectite-rich clay minerals including randomly ordered (R0-type) and ordered (R1-type) mixed layer illite/smectite (I/S). The preservation of R0-type clay minerals suggests unexpectedly slow mineral transformation and a moderate degree of diagenesis, which is unique, considering the Paleoproterozoic age of the sedimentary rocks. R0- and R1-type, smectite-rich particles occur in stratigraphic intervals with high organic carbon content and are associated with carbonaceous filamentous structures, suggesting formation of clay–organic matter complexes. Our data suggests that clay minerals may have enhanced organic matter preservation, providing the oldest example where a link between clay minerals and organic matter sequestration can be established. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that clay minerals enhanced organic carbon burial and aided in atmospheric oxygen accumulation through time.
    Mots-clés : Atmospheric oxygen, clay minerals, clay–organic matter complexes, Francevillian Group, organic matter, Paleoproterozoic.

  • Paillet, Patrick, Man-Estier, Elena, et Bonnet-Jacquement, Peggy.0 « Des Œuvres D’Art Magdaléniennes Inédites À Pont D’Ambon (Bourdeilles, Dordogne, France) ». PALEO. Revue d'archéologie préhistorique (24): 249-255.
    Résumé : Une révision systématique et méthodique des collections fauniques provenant du site de Pont d’Ambon (fouilles G. Célérier), réalisée dans le cadre du Projet Collectif de Recherche « Peuplements et cultures à la fin du Tardiglaciaire dans le Nord du Périgord », dirigé par P. Paillet, a permis la découverte de trois objets d’art mobilier en contexte magdalénien supérieur, localisés dans le site du point de vue archéostratigraphique (couche 5, carré J8). Il s’agit des premières œuvres d’art découvertes dans les niveaux magdaléniens de Pont d’Ambon, fouillés seulement sur 1 m. Sous forme d’une prise de date, les auteurs proposent une première et brève lecture de ces pièces et en révèlent l’originalité et les spécificités techniques et stylistiques.
    Mots-clés : art figuratif, art mobilier, Magdalénien, pont d’Ambon, supports osseux.

  • Péan, Stéphane, Puaud, Simon, Crépin, Laurent, Prat, Sandrine, Quiles, Anita, der Plicht, Johannes van, Valladas, Hélène, Stuart, Anthony J., Drucker, Dorothée G., et Patou-Mathis, Marylène.0 « The Middle To Upper Paleolithic Sequence Of Buran-Kaya Iii (Crimea, Ukraine): New Stratigraphic, Paleoenvironmental, And Chronological Results ». Radiocarbon 55(2).

  • Picin, Andrea, Peresani, Marco, Falguères, Christophe, Gruppioni, Giulia, et Bahain, Jean-Jacques.0 « San Bernardino Cave (Italy) And The Appearance Of Levallois Technology In Europe: Results Of A Radiometric And Technological Reassessment ». PLoS ONE 8(10): e76182.
    Résumé : The introduction of Levallois technology in Europe marked the transition from the Lower to the early Middle Paleolithic. This new method of flake production was accompanied by significant behavioral changes in hominin populations. The emergence of this technological advance is considered homogeneous in the European archaeological record at the Marine isotopic stage (MIS) 9/MIS 8 boundary. In this paper we report a series of combined electron spin resonance/U-series dates on mammal bones and teeth recovered from the lower units of San Bernardino Cave (Italy) and the technological analyses of the lithic assemblages. The San Bernardino Cave has yielded the earliest evidence of Levallois production on the Italian Peninsula recovered to date. In addition to our results and the review of the archaeological record, we describe the chronological and geographical differences between European territories and diversities in terms of technological developments. The belated emergence of Levallois technology in Italy compared to western Europe corresponds to the late Italian Neanderthal speciation event. The new radiometric dates and the technological analyses of San Bernardino Cave raise the issue of the different roles of glacial refugia in the peopling and the spread of innovative flaking strategies in Europe during the late Middle Pleistocene.

  • Porraz, Guillaume, Parkington, John E., Rigaud, Jean-Philippe, Miller, Christopher E., Poggenpoel, Cedric, Tribolo, Chantal, Archer, Will, Cartwright, Caroline R., Charrié-Duhaut, Armelle, Dayet, Laure, Igreja, Marina, Mercier, Norbert, Schmidt, Patrick, Verna, Christine, et Texier, Pierre-Jean.0 « The Msa Sequence Of Diepkloof And The History Of Southern African Late Pleistocene Populations ». Journal of Archaeological Science 40(9): 3542-3552.
    Résumé : This paper presents the first multidisciplinary synthesis of the Middle Stone Age sequence of Diepkloof Rock Shelter (South Africa). We explore the main cultural changes that characterized southern African hunter–gatherer societies from OIS 5 to the beginning of OIS 3. We discuss the tempo of these changes, test the current interpretative hypotheses and explore an empirical model to explain the early appearance of symbolic marking within the Pleistocene hunter–gather societies of southern Africa. Major technological and cultural innovations appear in one form or another during OIS 5 in southern Africa, a period characterized by the coexistence of multiple, distinct technological traditions. We argue that the formation of regional identities in southern Africa would have favoured and increased cultural interactions between groups at a local scale, providing a favourable context for the development and diffusion of innovations. In the West Coast of South Africa, the main cultural innovations appear within the Howiesons Poort. It is within this context that we postulate a change in regional networks and population dynamics, leading to the success of the HP technology across southern Africa. The southern African data suggest that the history of modern humans has been characterized by multiple and independent evolutionary trajectories and that different paths and scenarios existed towards the adoption of ‘modern’ hunter–gatherer lifestyles.
    Mots-clés : Anatomically Modern Humans, Howiesons Poort, Innovations, Late Pleistocene, Modern hunter–gatherers, Regionalization, Southern Africa, Still Bay.

  • Puymerail, Laurent.0 « The Functionally-Related Signatures Characterizing The Endostructural Organisation Of The Femoral Shaft In Modern Humans And Chimpanzee ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 12(4): 223-231.
    Résumé : Within the limits imposed by a number of developmental and rheological factors, endostructural arrangement of the appendicular skeleton is consistent with the functional patterns of stress, where cortical bone topographic thickness variation in long bones primarily reflects the nature, direction, intensity, and frequency of the locomotion-related biomechanical loads. By applying techniques of cross-sectional geometric analysis and 3D morphometric mapping to a (micro)tomographic record consisting of 12 modern human and 10 chimpanzee adult femora, we have shown two distinct patterns (functional “signatures”) of cortical bone arrangement along the shaft (20–80% portion of the biomechanical length) specifically associated to the bipedal (Homo) and the quadrupedal modes (Pan). In particular, the inner structure of the human femoral diaphysis is adapted to antero-posterior loadings and presents a greater rigidity against posterior bending, while that of Pan is characterized by the presence of strong medial and lateral bony reinforcements positioned above its femoral midshaft. Dans les limites imposées par des contraintes développementales et rhéologiques, l’agencement endostructural du squelette appendiculaire est en adéquation avec les patrons fonctionnels de stress, où les variations topographiques d’épaisseur du tissu cortical des os longs reflètent la nature, la direction, l’intensité et la fréquence des charges biomécaniques en relation avec le mode locomoteur. Grâce à des techniques d’analyse des propriétés géométriques de section et de cartographie morphométrique 3D appliquées au registre (micro)tomographique d’un échantillon de 12 fémurs d’humains modernes et dix de chimpanzés, nous avons mis en évidence deux modèles distincts (« signature » fonctionnelle) d’arrangement de l’os cortical le long de la diaphyse (portion 20–80 % de la longueur biomécanique), spécifiquement en relation à la bipédie (Homo) et à la quadrupédie (Pan). En particulier, la structure interne de la diaphyse fémorale des humains modernes est adaptée aux contraintes antéropostérieures et présente une grande rigidité contre la flexion postérieure, alors que celle de Pan est caractérisée par la présence d’importants renforcements osseux au niveau médial et latéral positionnés au-dessus de la mi-diaphyse.
    Mots-clés : Diaphyse fémorale, Femoral shaft, Homo, Inner structure, locomotion, Pan, Structure interne.

  • Sala, Nohemi, Algaba, Milagros, Gomez-Olivencia, Asier, Pablos, Adrián, Bonmatí, Alejandro, Rodriguez, Laura, Garcia, Rebeca, et Arsuaga, Juan Luis.0 « Nuevos Restos Humanos Procedentes De La Cueva De La Zarzamora (Segovia, España) ». Munibe. Antropologia-arkeologia (64): 105–116.

  • Schmidt, P., Léa, V., Sciau, Ph., et Fröhlich, F.0 « Detecting And Quantifying Heat Treatment Of Flint And Other Silica Rocks: A New Non-Destructive Method Applied To Heat-Treated Flint From The Neolithic Chassey Culture, Southern France ». Archaeometry 55(5): 794–805.
    Résumé : Heat treatment of lithic raw material is known from the Middle Stone Age to the Neolithic. These findings require archaeometric techniques and methods for detecting the heat-induced effects within lithic artefacts. However, the existing methods are often cost-intensive and time-consuming, and most of them are destructive. Here, we present a new method using the infrared spectroscopic measurement of the strength of H-bonds formed between surface silanole groups (SiOH) and H2O molecules held in open pores of the samples. The reduction of H-bond strength in chalcedony is shown to be strongly correlated with the loss of open pores induced by heat treatment. Hence, the method is based on measuring one of the transformations aimed for by the instigators of the heat treatment: the reduction of porosity that modifies the rock's mechanical properties. A first application to heat-treated material from the Neolithic Chassey culture (southern France) shows that flint was heated to temperatures between 200°C and 250°C in this period. This has important implications for the study of the procedures used and the heating environments. Our new method is non-destructive, rapid, cost-effective and allows for detection of the used annealing temperatures.
    Mots-clés : Chalcedony, CHASSÉEN, CHASSEY CULTURE, Flint, Heat treatment, NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, POROSITY LOSS, Silanole (SiOH).

  • Schmidt, Patrick, Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic, Léa, Vanessa, et Sciau, Philippe.0 « Moganite Detection In Silica Rocks Using Raman And Infrared Spectroscopy ». European Journal of Mineralogy 25(5): 797-805.
    Résumé : The quantitative determination of moganite in flint and chert plays an important role in the characterisation of these silica rocks and in the study of their genesis and evolution. Both Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy promise to be rapid and cost-effective tools for such studies. However, the use of vibrational spectra of moganite in silica rocks is hampered by the proximity of specific moganite bands with IR and Raman vibrations bands of non-bridging Si-O in silanol (SiOH) groups of chalcedony, the main coexisting silica phase. This may result in spectral interferences that lead to an overestimation of the moganite concentration. In order to calibrate quantitative moganite detection using IR and Raman spectroscopy, the spectra of chalcedony/moganite mixtures were studied using spectral decomposition. Heat treatment of the samples prior to their analysis is found to reduce the contribution of chalcedony silanol-bands to the measurement of the moganite bands, facilitating in this way the interpretation of the spectra. A new calibration curve is proposed for quantitative moganite detection using Raman spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy is also found to be useful for moganite quantification: a molar absorption coefficient of 43 L/mol·cm for the specific moganite-band at 575 cm−1 is derived for the first time. The exact position of the specific IR and Raman moganite-bands is found to depend on whether the mineral occurs intermixed with chalcedony or in pure form. This study opens new prospects for quantitative moganite detection in silica rocks using vibrational spectroscopy.
    Mots-clés : Chalcedony, chert, Flint, Moganite, silanol, Silica rocks, spectral decomposition, vibrational spectroscopy.

  • Schmidt, Patrick, Porraz, Guillaume, Slodczyk, Aneta, Bellot-gurlet, Ludovic, Archer, William, et Miller, Christopher E.0 « Heat Treatment In The South African Middle Stone Age: Temperature Induced Transformations Of Silcrete And Their Technological Implications ». Journal of Archaeological Science 40(9): 3519-3531.
    Résumé : It was recently found that silcrete raw material was heat-treated during the South African Middle Stone Age (MSA) for altering its flaking properties. This finding led to hypotheses about the implications for the MSA hunter-gatherers such as the cost of thermal treatment in terms of investment and firewood. To date, these hypotheses lack a solid basis, for data on the thermal transformations of South African silcrete and, hence, the necessary heating procedure and heating environment, is missing. In order to produce such data, we conducted an experimental study within the framework of the Diepkloof project. This work is based on the petrographic, mineralogical and structural analysis of South African silcrete from the West Coast and its thermal transformations. Our results shed light on the nature of these transformations, the ideal heating temperatures and the tolerated heating speed. The processes occurring in silcrete are comparable to flint, i.e. the loss of chemically bound ‘water’ and the formation of new Si–O–Si bonds, but their intensity is less pronounced. Effective heating temperatures are significantly higher than for flint and the heating speed tolerated by South African silcrete is relatively fast. These findings imply that silcrete heat treatment cannot be directly compared with flint heat treatment. Unlike flint, heating silcrete does not require the setup of a dedicated heating environment and may have been performed in the same time as other fire related activities. This would represent only a minor supplementary investment in time and firewood. These results have broad implications for the discussion about technological evolution and the acquisition of specialised knowledge in the MSA.
    Mots-clés : Heat treatment, MSA, Raw material, Silcrete, South Africa, Thermal properties.

  • Schmidt, Patrick, Slodczyk, Aneta, Léa, Vanessa, Davidson, Anne, Puaud, Simon, et Sciau, Philippe.0 « A Comparative Study Of The Thermal Behaviour Of Length-Fast Chalcedony, Length-Slow Chalcedony (Quartzine) And Moganite ». Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 40(4): 331-340.
    Résumé : The thermal behaviour of silica rocks upon heat treatment is dependent on the constituent minerals and petrographic texture types. These constituents can be shown to be mainly quartz in the form of two types of chalcedony (Length-fast (LF) chalcedony and Length-slow (LS) chalcedony, the latter also being termed quartzine) and moganite. Even though the thermal behaviour of LF-chalcedony is well understood, major uncertainties persist concerning the high-temperature behaviour of LS-chalcedony and moganite. We present here a comparative study of these three constituents of common silica rocks. Our results show that the chemical reaction is the same in all three, Si–OH + HO–Si → Si–O–Si + H2O, but that the reaction kinetics and activation temperatures are very different. LS-chalcedony begins to react from 200 °C upwards, that is at temperatures 50 °C below the ones observed in LF-chalcedony, and shows the fastest reaction kinetics of this ‘water’ loss. Chemically bound water (SiOH) in moganite is more stable at high temperatures and no specific activation temperature is necessary for triggering the temperature-induced ‘water’ loss. Moganite is also found to act as a stabilizer in silica rocks preventing them from temperature-induced fracturing. These findings have implications for the study of potential heat treatment temperatures of silica rocks (in industry and heritage studies), but they also shed light on the different structures of SiO2 minerals and the role of OH impurities therein.
    Mots-clés : Chalcedony, Crystallography, Geochemistry, Heat treatment, Mineral Resources, Mineralogy, Moganite, Quartzine, Silanole (SiOH), Silica rocks.

  • Stoetzel, Emmanuelle.0 « Late Cenozoic Micromammal Biochronology Of Northwestern Africa ». Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 392: 359-381.
    Résumé : This synthesis aims to integrate former, recent and unpublished data on fossil micromammals (Rodentia, Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Chiroptera) from Moroccan, Algerian and Tunisian archeological and paleontological sites. An updated biochronology of these taxa is established from the middle Miocene to the Holocene. Ten main biozones are defined: they are characterized by specific faunal assemblages, whose evolution and migrations were influenced by geologic and climatic events throughout the studied period. During the Miocene, Myocricetodontinae were dominant. This period was followed by a progressive diversification among Murinae, Gerbillinae, and Crocidurinae from the Plio-Pleistocene onwards, along with sporadic occurrences of European, Asian and sub-Saharan taxa, before a decrease in small mammal diversity at the beginning of the late Pleistocene, while modern faunas stabilized. Overall, the new biochronology matches well with the former ones. However, some slight discrepancies emerge, notably because the former biochronologies were based on more sporadic data and often did not consider the whole small mammal faunas. The present work represents the first complete biochronological synthesis of North African small faunas for the whole late Cenozoic, which should be useful for paleontologists and archeologists in providing an up-to-date framework into which future discoveries will easily find their place.
    Mots-clés : Holocene, Miocene, Northwestern Africa, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Small mammals.

  • Stoetzel, Emmanuelle, Denys, Christiane, Michaux, Jacques, et Renaud, Sabrina.0 « Mus In Morocco: A Quaternary Sequence Of Intraspecific Evolution ». Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 109(3): 599-621.
    Résumé : North Africa is an intricate biogeographical region at the crossroads of immigration waves from tropical Africa and Asia. Species confined between various barriers (Atlas Mountains, arid environments such as the Sahara in the south, water masses such as the Mediterranean Sea in the north, and the Atlantic Ocean in the west) were generally forced to adapt locally to environmental changes instead of tracking their habitat by shifting their distribution area. The present study aims at providing first insight into the evolution of the genus Mus, and more specifically of the western Mediterranean species Mus spretus in this area. The study relies on the abundant Late Pleistocene and Middle Holocene fossil assemblage from the El Harhoura 2 cave (Rabat-Témara, Morocco). This exceptional record was studied using geometric morphometrics applied to first upper and lower molars, constituting the most informative and best preserved fossil remains for such small rodents. Two main issues were addressed. (1) Geometric morphometrics was used to clarify taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships among fossil and modern species in this area. Morphometric analysis revealed good discrimination of most modern and fossil species but failed to document intermediate forms tracing anagenetic evolution. Not mutually exclusive, the occurrence of complex processes of morphological evolution in this genus such as parallel evolution and the action of stabilizing selection may make it difficult to translate patterns of morphological evolution into phylogenetic conclusions. (2) The record was shown to document a sequence of intraspecific evolution of M. spretus. The morphology of the molars through the fossil record of El Harhoura 2 was surprisingly stable despite extensive modern variation. The limited temporal variation largely failed to correlate to palaeoenvironmental proxies. The mouse fossil record at El Harhoura 2 thus presents an intriguing case of morphological stasis despite extensive environmental changes. This long-term stability may have been recently perturbed by anthropogenic factors including landscape changes and introduction of various competitors and predators, leading to a size reduction. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013, 109, 599–621.
    Mots-clés : Elliptic Fourier Analysis of outlines, first upper and lower molars, geometric morphometrics, Holocene, Morocco, Murinae, Rodentia, Pleistocene.

  • Sun, X., Lu, H., Yi, S., et Bahain, J. -J.0 « Age And Paleoenvironment Of Paleolithic Stone Artifact Remains Discovered In The Tengger Desert, Northern China ». Journal of Arid Environments 91: 129-137.
    Résumé : In northern China, environmental changes in the transitional zone from the sandy desert to the loess plateau have been regarded as an important issue in the understanding of climate changes and the remains of hominin activities found in this zone provide a solid line of evidence to support the reconstruction of environmental conditions during the late Pleistocene. In 2006, many stone artifacts were collected on the surface in the southeastern Tengger Desert, Northern China. The Tengger lithic assemblage is correlated to the Late Middle to Early Upper Paleolithic stage and with the typical and extensively investigated Shuidonggou site some 140 km north–east of the Tengger localities. In order to evaluate both the age and the environmental conditions prevailing during human occupation despite the lack of associated stratigraphies, we have tried to place the Tengger localities into the Late Pleistocene climatic framework using the available published data provided by Mu Us Desert sand–loess sections and records of Tengger paleolake levels, respectively eastwards and westwards from the newly discovered localities. Additionally, an unpublished sand–loess section was studied by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) near Zhongwei city, around 170 km to the south. All the data suggests that the optimal time for hominin activity in the Tengger Desert would have been from 42 to 22 ka, during a period of relatively humid conditions when the climate of the area was governed by the strengthened summer East Asian monsoon.
    Mots-clés : Environmental change, Late Middle–Early Upper paleolithic, Late Pleistocene, Loess–desert transitional zone.

  • Tissoux, Hélène, Prognon, François, Voinchet, Pierre, Lacquement, Frédéric, Tourliere, Bruno, et Bahain, Jean-Jacques.0 « Apport Des Datations Esr À La Connaissance Des Dépôts Sableux Plio-Pléistocènes En Sologne, Premiers Résultats ». Quaternaire 24(2): 141–153.

  • Toro-Moyano, Isidro, Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido, Agustí, Jordi, Souday, Caroline, Bermúdez de Castro, José María, Martinón-Torres, María, Fajardo, Beatriz, Duval, Mathieu, Falguères, Christophe, Oms, Oriol, Parés, Josep Maria, Anadón, Pere, Julià, Ramón, García-Aguilar, José Manuel, Moigne, Anne-Marie, Espigares, María Patrocinio, Ros-Montoya, Sergio, et Palmqvist, Paul.0 « The Oldest Human Fossil In Europe, From Orce (Spain) ». Journal of Human Evolution 65(1): 1-9.
    Résumé : The Orce region has one of the best late Pliocene and early Pleistocene continental paleobiological records of Europe. It is situated in the northeastern sector of the intramontane Guadix-Baza Basin (Granada, Andalusia, southern Spain). Here we describe a new fossil hominin tooth from the site of Barranco León, dated between 1.02 and 1.73 Ma (millions of years ago) by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), which, in combination with paleomagnetic and biochronologic data, is estimated to be close to 1.4 Ma. While the range of dates obtained from these various methods overlaps with those published for the Sima del Elefante hominin locality (1.2 Ma), the overwhelming majority of evidence points to an older age. Thus, at the moment, the Barranco León hominin is the oldest from Western Europe.
    Mots-clés : Barranco León, Early Pleistocene, Human tooth.

  • Tuniz, C., Bernardini, F., Cicuttin, A., Crespo, M. L., Dreossi, D., Gianoncelli, A., Mancini, L., Mendoza Cuevas, A., Sodini, N., Tromba, G., Zanini, F., et Zanolli, C.0 « The Ictp-Elettra X-Ray Laboratory For Cultural Heritage And Archaeology ». Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 711: 106-110.
    Résumé : A set of portable/transportable X-ray analytical instruments based on radiography, microtomography, fluorescence and diffraction have been built and are being operated at the Multidisciplinary Laboratory (MLAB) of the ‘Abdus Salam’ International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in collaboration with Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste. This is part of a project funded by the Region Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) and the ICTP, which aims to develop innovative X-ray analytical tools for noninvasive studies of cultural heritage objects and palaeontological remains. The X-ray instruments at MLAB are also used for hands-on training activities involving students and scientists from developing countries. The MLAB analytical tools complement the microtomography instruments available at Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste. Examples of our first studies in archaeological and palaeontological applications are presented here.
    Mots-clés : Archaeology, Palaeontology, X-ray microtomography, XRD, XRF.

  • Valensi, Patricia, Michel, Véronique, El Guennouni, Khalid, et Liouville, Marie.0 « New Data On Human Behavior From A 160,000 Year Old Acheulean Occupation Level At Lazaret Cave, South-East France: An Archaeozoological Approach ». Quaternary International 316: 123-139.
    Résumé : The UA 25 archaeostratigraphic unit of Lazaret cave is an exceptional Acheulean occupation level with abundant lithic and bone material and reveals a clear organization of activities carried out in the cave. In this paper, large mammals are studied from an archaeozoological perspective using a variety of methods of analysis, in order to increase our understanding of the behavior, way of life and environment of the Lazaret Acheuleans. During one autumn hunting episode, twenty-three red deer, six ibexes, three aurochs and one roe deer were slaughtered. For the most part, it appears that Anteneanderthals processed these carcasses inside the cave. They then left more than 600 bone remains piled into a heap with a diameter of 80 cm in the middle of the cave. The study of diversity indexes points towards selective red deer hunting, independently of the prey available in the environment. On the other hand, as far as the deer is concerned, hunted animals do not seem to have been selected within the herd on the basis of factors such as age or sex. The presence of the ibex, the second most hunted species at the site, seems to be directly linked to climatic conditions and its relative abundance in the environment.

  • Vercoutère, Carole, Guérin, Claude, Crépin, Laurent, Richardin, Pascale, Gandolfo, Nathalie, Vincent, Julien, Marsac, Jean, Cersoy, Sophie, Rousselière, Hélène, Walter, Philippe, Brunelle, Alain, Nowik, Witold, Brissaud, Didier, Drucker, Dorothée G., van der Plicht, Johannes, Patou-Mathis, Marylène, et Vialet, Amélie.0 « Étude Pluridisciplinaire Du Squelette De Rhinocéros Laineux, Coelodonta Antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799), De L’Institut De Paléontologie Humaine (Paris, France) ». L'Anthropologie 117(1): 1-47.
    Résumé : En 2010, la fondation Institut de paléontologie humaine (Paris) a acquis un squelette monté de rhinocéros laineux, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799), dont le remarquable état de conservation a permis une étude pluridisciplinaire : analyses anatomique, biométrique, géochronologique (datations par le carbone-14 par AMS de la corne et de certains os) et biogéochimique (reconstitution de la paléoalimentation et du paléoenvironnement par la méthode des isotopes du carbone et de l’azote). Une recherche sur l’origine de ce spécimen et son parcours avant son acquisition a également été menée. Ces différentes investigations nous ont conduits à préciser l’identification spécifique du fossile sibérien, son âge biologique et son sexe, ainsi que son attribution chronologique et son comportement alimentaire. In 2010, the foundation Institut de paléontologie humaine (Paris) acquired an assembled skeleton of woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799). Its exceptional state of preservation allowed a multidisciplinary study: anatomical, biometrical, geochronological (AMS radiocarbon dating on horn and some bones) and biogeochemical analyses (reconstruction of the palaeodiet and the palaeoenvironment using the method of carbon and nitrogen isotopes). A research about the origin of this specimen and its story before its acquisition was also carried out. These different investigations led us to precise the species identification of this Siberian fossil, its biological age and its gender, as well as its chronological attribution and its dietary behavior.
    Mots-clés : Analyse pluridisciplinaire, Biogéochimie, Biogeochemistry, Coelodonta antiquitatis, Géochronologie, Geochronology, Institut de paléontologie humaine, Institute of human palaeontology, Morphométrie, Morphometry, Multidisciplinary analysis.

  • Vialou, Denis, et Vilhena Vialou, Agueda.0 « Fressignes (Indre, France), Campement De Chasseurs Solutréens Aux Limites De L’Extrême Septentrional ». Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología (5).
    Résumé : Fressignes (Indre, France), campement de chasseurs solutréens aux limites de l’extrême septentrional
    Mots-clés : armatures, campamento, campement, habitat, hábitat, outils, proyectiles, Solutréen supérieur, Solutrense superior, utensilios.

  • Voinchet, Pierre, Yin, Gongming, Falguères, Christophe, Liu, Chunru, Han, Fei, Sun, Xuefeng, et Bahain, Jean Jacques.0 « Esr Dose Response Of Al Center Measured In Quartz Samples From The Yellow River (China): Implications For The Dating Of Upper Pleistocene Sediment ». Geochronometria 40(4): 341-347.
    Résumé : The ESR dating method requires to describe the evolution of the ESR signal intensities vs. increasing gamma doses, then to extrapolate the equivalent dose of radiation received by the sample since its deposition using mathematical fitting. The function classically used to describe the growth curves of ESR aluminium signal in quartz was recently discussed and challenged for Lower Pleistocene sediments. In the present work, some alluvial sediments sampled in Upper Pleistocene fluvial terraces of the Yellow River system (China) permit us to test the application of another extrapolation function (linear + exponential) recently proposed for Lower Pleistocene sediments. The equivalent doses obtained here for the recent deposits of the Yellow River system and the corresponding ages are promising and indicate the potential of ESR to date quartz deposits from Upper Pleistocene times.
    Mots-clés : Earth Sciences, general, Environmental Monitoring/Analysis, equivalent dose determination, ESR dating method, exponential plus linear function, Quantitative Geology, Quartz, upper Pleistocene.

  • Zanolli, Clément.0 « Additional Evidence For Morpho-Dimensional Tooth Crown Variation In A New Indonesian H. Erectus Sample From The Sangiran Dome (Central Java) ». PLoS ONE 8(7): e67233.
    Résumé : This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene.

  • Zanolli, Clément, et Mazurier, Arnaud.0 « Endostructural Characterization Of The H. Heidelbergensis Dental Remains From The Early Middle Pleistocene Site Of Tighenif, Algeria ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 12(5): 293-304.
    Résumé : The early Middle Pleistocene human fossil assemblage from Tighenif, Algeria, likely samples some among the earliest representatives of the Homo heidelbergensis morph. A previous study of three deciduous molars from this assemblage revealed an inner structural signature (crown tissue proportions and enamel thickness topography) roughly approximating the modern human figures. By using advanced techniques of microtomographic-based 3D virtual imaging and quantitative analysis, we significantly extend here the currently available record to 22 permanent teeth, mostly from the mandibular dentition, and provide the first detailed description of the structural condition characterizing this North African deme near the Lower-Middle Pleistocene boundary. Together with a certain degree of individual variation, the teeth of Tighenif exhibit a structural pattern combining primitive, derived, and unique features. The lower molars display a set of enamel-dentine junction nonmetric traits more frequently found in recent humans than in Neanderthals, but also a blend of Neanderthal- and modern-like characteristics in terms of structural conformation and crown tissue proportions. They also exhibit relatively large pulp cavities, with a rather high root bifurcation and well-separated pulp canals, a pattern more closely approximating the condition reported for Late Pleistocene Aterians. L’assemblage humain fossile du site pléistocène initial de Tighenif, en Algérie, compte vraisemblablement parmi les premiers représentants du morphe Homo heidelbergensis. Une précédente étude de trois molaires déciduales de cet assemblage a révélé une signature structurale interne (proportions des tissus de la couronne et topographie de l’épaisseur de l’émail) approchant le schéma humain moderne. En utilisant des techniques avancées d’imagerie virtuelle et d’analyse quantitative 3D basées sur la microtomographie, nous étendons ici de manière significative le registre actuellement disponible à 22 dents permanentes, principalement de la denture mandibulaire, et fournissons les premières descriptions détaillées de la condition structurale caractérisant cette population Nord-Africaine, autour de la limite Pléistocène inférieur-moyen. Malgré un certain degré de variation individuelle, les dents de Tighenif montrent un patron structural combinant des caractéristiques primitives, dérivées et uniques. Les molaires inférieures dévoilent au niveau de la jonction émail-dentine un ensemble de traits non métriques plus fréquemment trouvés chez les humains modernes que chez les Néandertaliens, mais aussi un mélange de caractéristiques semblables soit à celles des Néandertaliens, soit à celles des humains modernes en termes de conformation structurale et de proportions des tissus. Elles présentent aussi des cavités pulpaires volumineuses, avec une bifurcation radiculaire assez élevée et des canaux pulpaires bien séparés, s’approchant plus particulièrement de la condition rapportée pour des Atériens du Pléistocène supérieur.
    Mots-clés : Algérie, Algeria, Dents permanentes, Early Middle Pleistocene, H. heidelbergensis, Morphologie structurale, Permanent teeth, Pléistocène moyen initial, Proportions des tissus, Structural morphology, Tighenif, Tissue proportions.

  • Zazzo, Antoine, Lebon, Matthieu, Chiotti, Laurent, Comby, Clothilde, Delqué-Količ, Emmanuelle, Nespoulet, Roland, et Reiche, Ina.0 « Can We Use Calcined Bones For Radiocarbon Dating The Paleolithic? ». Radiocarbon 55(2–3): 1409–1421.

  • Zeitoun, Valery, Auetrakulvit, Prasit, Forestier, Hubert, Zazzo, Antoine, Davtian, Gourgen, Nakbunlung, Supaporn, et Tiamtinkrit, Chaturaporn.0 « Discovery Of A Mesolithic Burial Near The Painted Rock-Shelter Of Ban Tha Si (Lampang Province, Northern Thailand): Implications For Regional Mortuary Practices ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 12(2): 127-136.
    Résumé : Although the oldest Neolithic cultures in eastern Asia have for the most part been documented in China and Vietnam, a large number of Early Metal Age sites have been reported in northeastern Thailand. On the other hand, the Hoabinhian, principally identified by its characteristic unifacial tools, is known throughout the Late Pleistocene up until 3000 BP and is spread across the whole of continental Southeast Asia. The chronology of Hoabihnian lithic assemblages is still poorly documented and burials from the period are scarce and often do not provide enough information to allow the evolution of regional mortuary practices to be investigated. Here we describe a burial dated to 7047 ± 53 BP found associated with a Hoabinhian stone tool assemblage and fauna near the painted rock-shelter of Ban Tha Si. This discovery provides important new chrono-cultural information for continental Southeast Asia, especially with regard to changing regional mortuary practices. Alors que les cultures du Néolithique ancien d’Asie orientale ont essentiellement été décrites en Chine et au Vietnam, les cultures de l’Âge des Métaux ont abondamment été documentées dans le Nord-Est de la Thaïlande. Par ailleurs, le Hoabinhien, principalement identifié par ses outils unifaciaux caractéristiques,est connu du Pléistocène tardif jusque vers 3000 BP sur l’ensemble du Sud-Est asiatique continental. La chronologie des assemblages lithiques hoabinhiens reste encore peu documentée et les sépultures de cette période sont rares et ne procurent ainsi que peu d’information permettant de suivre l’évolution des pratiques funéraires. Nous décrivons ici une sépulture inédite qui a été datée de 7047 ± 53 BP et qui est associée à un assemblage lithique hoabinhien dans l’abri-sous-roche orné de Ban Tha Si. Cette découverte apporte des informations chronoculturelles nouvelles pour l’Asie du Sud-Est continental et permet de dresser un premier panorama de l’évolution des pratiques funéraires de cette période.
    Mots-clés : Anthropologie de terrain, Art rupestre, Field anthropology, Hoabinhian, Hoabinhien, Mortuary practices, Pratiques funéraires, Radiocarbon dating, Radiocarbone, Rock art.

  • Zeitoun, Valery, Forestier, Hubert, Rasse, Michel, Auetrakulvit, Prasit, Kim, Jeongmin, et Tiamtinkrit, Chaturaporn.0 « The Ban Don Mun Artifacts: A Chronological Reappraisal Of Human Occupations In The Lampang Province Of Northern Thailand ». Journal of Human Evolution 65(1): 10-20.
    Résumé : Despite recent stone tool evidence demonstrating a much older Early Pleistocene human presence in India, the timing and geography of human demographic expansions in continental Southeast Asia remains ambiguous. The recent discovery of a series of stone artifacts spread over a basalt level at Ban Don Mun in the Lampang province of northern Thailand presents an ideal opportunity for reevaluating lithic assemblages documented during the 1970s and 1980s in the same region. Both the position of these stone tools and new absolute dates indicate a Middle Pleistocene age and call into question the status of these artifacts as the oldest yet found in Southeast Asia. The uncertain geo-chronological context and technological analysis of the chopper industry from previous work in the Lampang area prompted us to undertake new surveys in continental Southeast Asia in order to help clarify the route and timing of Pleistocene human expansions in this part of the world.
    Mots-clés : Chopper, Chronology, Middle Pleistocene, Movius Line, Southeast Asia.
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2012 : publications dans des revues à comité de lecture

  • Arnold, L.J., Duval, M., Falguères, C., Bahain, J.-J., et Demuro, M.0 « Portable Gamma Spectrometry With Cerium-Doped Lanthanum Bromide Scintillators: Suitability Assessments For Luminescence And Electron Spin Resonance Dating Applications ». Radiation Measurements 47(1): 6-18.
    Résumé : Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) crystals offer a range of improved scintillation properties over traditional NaI:Tl crystals for in situ gamma spectrometry. At present, however, it remains unclear whether the internal radioactivity of LaBr3:Ce detectors compromises their suitability for low-level activity radioisotope measurements of natural sedimentary deposits, such as those required in luminescence and electron spin resonance (ESR) dating. In this study we investigate the suitability of a commercial LaBr3:Ce detector for measuring individual concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th using predefined ‘energy windows’ from gamma ray spectra. Performance tests have been undertaken using reference materials with well-constrained radioisotope concentrations (the Oxford calibration blocks) and compared with results obtained for a NaI:Tl detector of the same geometry. These tests reveal that the LaBr3:Ce detector has a non-negligible intrinsic activity that needs to be accurately quantified prior to measuring any gamma ray spectra in the field. Compared to the NaI:Tl detector, the energy resolution of the LaBr3:Ce detector is improved by a factor of two, or more, for the main indicator isotope photopeaks in the 40K, 238U and 232Th decay series. Signal-to-noise ratios for the LaBr3:Ce detector show a 25–35% improvement over those of the NaI:Tl detector. In addition, the LaBr3:Ce detector is characterised by suitable energy linearity over the full spectral range of interest for the 40K, 238U and 232Th decay series. Replicate gamma ray measurements made with the LaBr3:Ce and NaI:Tl detectors for 20 natural sedimentary samples from the Lower Tejo River basin, Portugal, and the Duero River basin, Spain, yield consistent radioisotope concentrations and gamma dose rate estimates. These results are encouraging and suggest that LaBr3:Ce detectors can provide suitable estimates of individual radioisotope concentrations in low-level activity (0.5–1.5 Gy/ka) environments, providing that their intrinsic activity is adequately measured and subtracted from field spectra. Our comparison also reveals that subtraction of the intrinsic activity from LaBr3:Ce spectra produces a significant reduction in the precision with which radionuclide concentrations can be determined using the ‘energy windows’ approach. This shortcoming necessitates longer counting times in natural sedimentary environments and overshadows the practical advantages that LaBr3:Ce detectors might otherwise offer for luminescence and ESR dating applications.
    Mots-clés : Electron spin resonance dating, Lanthanum bromide, Luminescence dating, Portable gamma ray spectrometry, Scintillator detectors, Sodium iodide.

  • Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Falguères, Christophe, Laurent, Michel, Shao, Qingfeng, Dolo, Jean-Michel, Garcia, Tristan, Douville, Eric, Frank, Norbert, Monnier, Jean-Laurent, Hallégouët, Bernard, Laforge, Marine, Huet, Briagell, Auguste, Patrick, Liouville, Marie, Serre, Frédérik, et Gagnepain, Jean.0 « Esr And Esr/u-Series Dating Study Of Several Middle Palaeolithic Sites Of Pléneuf-Val-André (Brittany, France): Piégu, Les Vallées And Nantois ». Quaternary Geochronology 10: 424-429.
    Résumé : The area of Pléneuf-Val-André, Brittany, France, has delivered several Palaeolithic sites containing palaeontological remains, very rare into this granitic area. In order to precise the stratigraphical framework of the prehistoric human occupations of this zone, an ESR dating program was initiated in the late 1980s and different kinds of materials (mammal bones and teeth, naturally bleached quartz extracted from marine or aeolian sediments and marine mollusc shells) were then sampled for geochronological analyses. The present paper displays the main obtained results on three stratigraphically connected middle Palaeolithic sites: Piégu, Les Vallées and Nantois. The results are consistent with the regional chronostratigraphic framework and permit to suggest palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the area and the dating of the various archaeological evidences.
    Mots-clés : Bones and teeth, ESR, ESR/U-series, Middle Pleistocene, Mollusc shell, Mousterian, Sedimentary quartz.

  • Balzeau, Antoine, Gilissen, Emmanuel, et Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique.0 « Shared Pattern Of Endocranial Shape Asymmetries Among Great Apes, Anatomically Modern Humans, And Fossil Hominins ». PLoS ONE 7(1): e29581.
    Résumé : Anatomical asymmetries of the human brain are a topic of major interest because of their link with handedness and cognitive functions. Their emergence and occurrence have been extensively explored in human fossil records to document the evolution of brain capacities and behaviour. We quantified for the first time antero-posterior endocranial shape asymmetries in large samples of great apes, modern humans and fossil hominins through analysis of “virtual” 3D models of skull and endocranial cavity and we statistically test for departures from symmetry. Once based on continuous variables, we show that the analysis of these brain asymmetries gives original results that build upon previous analysis based on discrete traits. In particular, it emerges that the degree of petalial asymmetries differs between great apes and hominins without modification of their pattern. We indeed demonstrate the presence of shape asymmetries in great apes, with a pattern similar to modern humans but with a lower variation and a lower degree of fluctuating asymmetry. More importantly, variations in the position of the frontal and occipital poles on the right and left hemispheres would be expected to show some degree of antisymmetry when population distribution is considered, but the observed pattern of variation among the samples is related to fluctuating asymmetry for most of the components of the petalias. Moreover, the presence of a common pattern of significant directional asymmetry for two components of the petalias in hominids implicates that the observed traits were probably inherited from the last common ancestor of extant African great apes and Homo sapiens. These results also have important implications for the possible relationships between endocranial shape asymmetries and functional capacities in hominins. It emphasizes the uncoupling between lateralized activities, some of them well probably distinctive to Homo, and large-scale cerebral lateralization itself, which is not unique to Homo.

  • Balzeau, Antoine, Holloway, Ralph L., et Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique.0 « Variations And Asymmetries In Regional Brain Surface In The Genus Homo ». Journal of Human Evolution 62(6): 696-706.
    Résumé : Paleoneurology is an important field of research within human evolution studies. Variations in size and shape of an endocast help to differentiate among fossil hominin species whereas endocranial asymmetries are related to behavior and cognitive function. Here we analyse variations of the surface of the frontal, parieto-temporal and occipital lobes among different species of Homo, including 39 fossil hominins, ten fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens and 100 endocasts of extant modern humans. We also test for the possible asymmetries of these features in a large sample of modern humans and observe individual particularities in the fossil specimens. This study contributes important new information about the brain evolution in the genus Homo. Our results show that the general pattern of surface asymmetry for the different regional brain surfaces in fossil species of Homo does not seem to be different from the pattern described in a large sample of anatomically modern H. sapiens, i.e., the right hemisphere has a larger surface than the left, as do the right frontal, the right parieto-temporal and the left occipital lobes compared with the contra-lateral side. It also appears that Asian Homo erectus specimens are discriminated from all other samples of Homo, including African and Georgian specimens that are also sometimes included in that taxon. The Asian fossils show a significantly smaller relative size of the parietal and temporal lobes. Neandertals and anatomically modern H. sapiens, who share the largest endocranial volume of all hominins, show differences when considering the relative contribution of the frontal, parieto-temporal and occipital lobes. These results illustrate an original variation in the pattern of brain organization in hominins independent of variations in total size. The globularization of the brain and the enlargement of the parietal lobes could be considered derived features observed uniquely in anatomically modern H. sapiens.
    Mots-clés : Autapomorphy, Cerebral lobe proportions, Endocasts, Hominin brain evolution, Paleoneurology.

  • Beck, L., Cuif, J.-P., Pichon, L., Vaubaillon, S., Dambricourt Malassé, A., et Abel, R.L.0 « Checking Collagen Preservation In Archaeological Bone By Non-Destructive Studies (Micro-Ct And Iba) ». Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 273: 203-207.
    Résumé : The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon–Hydrogen–Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14C dating.
    Mots-clés : Bone, Carbon 14, EBS, ERDA, PIXE, RBS.

  • Beck, L., Salomon, H., Lahlil, S., Lebon, M., Odin, G. P., Coquinot, Y., et Pichon, L.0 « Non-Destructive Provenance Differentiation Of Prehistoric Pigments By External Pixe ». Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 273: 173-177.
    Résumé : The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave “La grotte du Renne” in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000–34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe–K or Mn–K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.
    Mots-clés : Arcy-sur-Cure, Ochre, Petrography, PIXE, Prehistoric pigment, Provenance.

  • Beck, Lucile, Rousselière, Hélène, Castaing, Jacques, Duran, Adrian, Lebon, Matthieu, Lahlil, Sophia, et Plassard, Frédéric.0 « Analyse In Situ Des Dessins Préhistoriques De La Grotte De Rouffignac Par Fluorescence X Et Diffraction X Portable ». ArchéoSciences. Revue d'archéométrie (36): 139-152.
    Résumé : La Grotte de Rouffignac (Dordogne, France) est un site d'art paléolithique qui renferme de nombreux dessins réalisés au trait noir (mammouths, bisons, rhinocéros laineux, chevaux, bouquetins...). Bien qu'aucune datation directe n'ait été réalisée à ce jour, les œuvres graphiques de cette caverne sont en général rattachées au Magdalénien.
    Mots-clés : Art préhistorique, diffraction X (XRD), fluorescence X (XRF), in situ, oxyde de manganèse, pigments préhistoriques, système portable.

  • Beyneix, Alain.0 « Le Monde Des Morts Au Néolithique En Aquitaine : Essai De Synthèse ». L'Anthropologie 116(2): 222-233.
    Résumé : Résumé Cet article cherche à définir les principales caractéristiques des sépultures et l’évolution des comportements funéraires au Néolithique, entre environ 5500 et 2300/2200 avant J.-C., dans l’actuelle région d’Aquitaine. Pour l’heure, nous ne connaissons aucune sépulture qui daterait de la phase ancienne de la période. Ce n’est qu’à partir du Néolithique moyen vers 4500 avant J.-C. qu’apparaissent les premières tombes mégalithiques, des dolmens à couloir de type angoumoisin et des coffres sous-tumulus, ainsi que des sépultures en cavités naturelles. Le Néolithique récent puis le Néolithique final, entre 3700 et 2300/2200 avant J.-C., correspondent à la grande époque des architectures funéraires mégalithiques. Des dolmens simples caussenards furent édifiés en Dordogne et dans l’Entre-deux-Mers en Gironde, des allées d’Aquitaine et des allées girondines se développèrent au cœur des terres aquitaines tandis que les Pyrénées occidentales virent se multiplier les dolmens simples. En revanche, les grottes et abris sous roches furent semble-t-il beaucoup moins prisés par les populations de la fin des temps néolithiques pour y déposer leurs défunts. This paper proposes to define the main characteristics of the burials and the evolution of funeral behaviours during the Neolithic times, between about 5500 and 2300/2200 B.C., in the present territory of Aquitaine. For the moment, no burial was found for early Neolithic. During the middle Neolithic, about 4500 B.C., appear the first megalithic graves, passage graves (Angoumoisin type) and barrow cists, as well as burial caves. Late Neolithic, between 3700 and 2300/2200 B.C. is the great period of megalithic graves. Single quadrangular dolmen (Caussenard type) were built in Dordogne and in the Entre-deux-Mers in Gironde, gallery graves, the “allées d’Aquitaine” as to the “allées girondines” extended in the centre of the Aquitaine country while in the western Pyrénées the single quadrangular dolmen increased. In return, caves and rock shelter were, it seems to me, less prized by the people during the end of Neolithic times to leave the dead.
    Mots-clés : Burial caves, Burials, Comportements funéraires, Funeral behaviours, Grottes sépulcrales, Megalithic graves, Néolithique, Neolithic, Sépultures, South-West of France, Sud-ouest de la France, Tombes mégalithiques.

  • Beyneix, Alain, Briois, François, et Servelle, Christian.0 « La Hache De Laplume (Lot-Et-Garonne) : Un Outil En Pierre Polie Parmi Les Plus Importants Du Néolithique Du Midi De La France ». L'Anthropologie 116(2): 217-221.
    Résumé : Résumé Découverte anciennement et hors de tout contexte archéologique sur la commune de Laplume (Lot-et-Garonne), cette hache en roche pyrénéenne de part ses grandes dimensions et surtout son poids exceptionnel de 1510,8 g compte parmi les outils polis les plus grands du Néolithique du Midi de la France. This polished axe has been discovered formerly at Laplume (Lot-et-Garonne) but the definite location and the archaeological context are unknown. With regard to its large dimensions and particularly its exceptional weight (1510.8 g), this axe is one of the most important polished tools for the Neolithic period in Southern France.
    Mots-clés : Hache polie, Midi de la France, Néolithique, Neolithic, Outillage lithique, Polished axe, Southern France, Stone tools.

  • Brasseur, Boris.0 « Pedo-Sedimentary Dynamics Of Sangiran Dome Hominid Bearing Layers (L/m Pleistocene, Java Central, Indonesia): A Paleopedological Approach Of ‘Pithecanthropus’ (Javanese Homo Erectus) Environments ». Quaternary International 279–280: 65.

  • Caparrós, Miguel, Barroso Ruíz, Cecilio, Moigne, Anne Marie, et Monclova Bohorquez, Antonio.0 « Did Neanderthals And Carnivores Compete For Animal Nutritional Resources In The Surroundings Of The Cave Of Zafarraya? ». Journal of Taphonomy 10(3-4): 395-415.

  • Chacón, María Gema, Vaquero, Manuel, et Carbonell, Eudald.0 « The Neanderthal Home: Spatial And Social Behaviours ». Quaternary International 247: 1-9.

  • Cordier, Stéphane, Harmand, Dominique, Lauer, Tobias, Voinchet, Pierre, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, et Frechen, Manfred.0 « Geochronological Reconstruction Of The Pleistocene Evolution Of The Sarre Valley (France And Germany) Using Osl And Esr Dating Techniques ». Geomorphology 165–166: 91-106.
    Résumé : This paper focuses upon the Pleistocene terraces of the Sarre River, a right bank tributary of the Moselle River (NE France and SW Germany) flowing through the Vosges Massif, the eastern Paris Basin and the Rhenish Massif. Recent research has allowed the recognition of 12 well preserved alluvial terraces (Sa1 youngest to Sa12 oldest) between the present floodplain Sa0 and + 120 m relative height. The youngest terraces were dated using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL). A first chronological framework was also provided for older terraces by Electron-Spin-Resonance (ESR) dating. The ages range between the end of the Early Pleistocene and the last glacial–interglacial cycle of the Late Pleistocene (ca. 1.1 Ma to 50 ka). Age ranges are consistent with the terrace elevation and stratigraphy, allowing correlation of the youngest terraces with established global climate cycles and with the younger terraces in the Moselle valley. In particular, an erosional period was recognised at the end of the Saalian, (end of MIS 6) suggesting that the terrace incision occurred at the cold-to-warm transition. This result contrasts with those obtained for the Moselle and Meurthe Rivers, where previous studies suggest that major incision took place at the beginning of the cold periods. The differences are attributed to a variable fluvial response to climate change which could relate to the presence or absence of glaciers in the upper catchment.
    Mots-clés : ESR, Fluvial terraces, Moselle River, OSL, Pleistocene, Sarre River.

  • Dabkowski, Julie, Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole, Antoine, Pierre, Andrews, Julian, Marca-Bell, Alina, et Robert, Vincent.0 « Climatic Variations In Mis 11 Recorded By Stable Isotopes And Trace Elements In A French Tufa (La Celle, Seine Valley) ». Journal of Quaternary Science 27(8): 790–799.
    Résumé : Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 palaeoclimate has so far been documented in marine and ice sheet isotopic records. However, excepting some lacustrine pollen records, very little is known about palaeoclimatic conditions in continental areas. This study uses geochemical records in calcareous tufa deposits from rivers as a basis for reconstructing temperate palaeoclimatic conditions. Tufa deposits are now proven to record high-quality palaeoclimatic information in recent to Holocene deposits. Work on older interglacial tufas is just starting and in this paper we present the first comprehensive results from a MIS 11 tufa. The tufa comes from the Seine Valley (La Celle, northern France). Geochemical data in the tufa calcite are interpreted to record primarily air temperature (δ18O) and humidity (δ13C and Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca). The combined data identify a warm and wet climatic optimum followed by two temperature decreases associated with oscillations in humidity. These marked climatic variations recorded through the La Celle profile are strongly coherent with the palaeoenvironmental reconstructions from malacological data. The abrupt climatic and environmental events recorded could be related to short-term degradation of vegetation cover in Europe, which is itself controlled by global palaeoclimatic events. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Mots-clés : calcareous tufa, MIS 11, Palaeoclimate, stable isotopes, trace elements.

  • Daujeard, Camille, Fernandes, Paul, Guadelli, Jean-Luc, Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Santagata, Carmen, et Raynal, Jean-Paul.0 « Neanderthal Subsistence Strategies In Southeastern France Between The Plains Of The Rhone Valley And The Mid-Mountains Of The Massif Central (Mis 7 To Mis 3) ». Quaternary International 252: 32-47.
    Résumé : New investigations of finds from middle Rhone Valley sites (Le Figuier, Abri du Maras, Baume Flandin and Ranc Pointu 2) and from the mountainous southeastern area of the Massif Central (Sainte-Anne I, especially the unpublished data for unit J2) allowed assembly of new data on both chronological and environmental grounds for human occupation and consequently on Neanderthal subsistence strategies in this area. The southeastern Massif Central region makes it possible to examine Neanderthal occupation modes in an area linking medium altitude territories with the plains of the Rhone River corridor. This work aims to determine site occupation events and territory management strategies for these two environments. The variability of the site occupation types in the middle Rhone Valley supports the hypothesis of human groups who anticipated their land use strategies, and suggests a particular type of circulating model for these areas. The evidence suggests that the human presence consists of brief stopping-places, short-term regular camps (interspersed with some occupations by carnivores), or long-term residential camps. The types of occupation observed in the two mountain sites of Velay (Sainte-Anne I cave and Baume-Vallée rock-shelter) a priori do not indicate occupations specific to an environment at this altitude. On the contrary, they suggest the existence of short-term regular camps, probably seasonally utilised and exploited when good seasons favoured the expansion of accessible territories. The sites in the plains of the Rhone Valley corridor indicate a greater variety of occupation types, but still within the framework of strong seasonal mobility.

  • Daver, Guillaume, Berillon, Gilles, et Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique.0 « Carpal Kinematics In Quadrupedal Monkeys: Towards A Better Understanding Of Wrist Morphology And Function ». Journal of Anatomy 220(1): 42–56.
    Résumé : The purpose of this study is to provide new data on carpal kinematics in primates in order to deepen our understanding of the relationships between wrist morphology and function. To that end, we provide preliminary data on carpal kinematics in seven species of quadrupedal monkeys that have not been previously investigated in this regard (cercopithecoids, n = 4; ceboids, n = 3). We radiographed wrists from cadavers at their maximum radial and ulnar deviations, as well as at maximum flexion and extension. We took angular measurements to quantify the contribution of the mobility of the two main wrist joints (antebrachiocarpal and midcarpal) with respect to total wrist mobility. We also recorded qualitative observations. Our quantitative results show few clear differences among quadrupedal monkeys for radioulnar deviation and flexion–extension: all the primates studied exhibit a greater midcarpal mobility (approximately 54–83% of the total range of motion) than antebrachiocarpal mobility; however, we identified two patterns of carpal kinematics that show the functional impact of previously recognised morphological variations in quadrupedal monkeys. Firstly, qualitative results show that the partition that divides the proximal joint of the wrist in ceboids results in less mobility and more stability of the ulnar part of the wrist than is seen in cercopithecoids. Secondly, we show that the olive baboon specimen (Papio anubis) is characterised by limited antebrachiocarpal mobility for extension; this effect is likely the result of a radial process that projects on the scaphoid notch, as well as an intraarticular meniscus. Because of these close relationships between carpal kinematics and morphology in quadrupedal monkeys, we hypothesise that, to some extent, these functional tendencies are related to their locomotor hand postures.
    Mots-clés : comparative anatomy, functional morphology, hand postures, locomotion, radiography, wrist joints.

  • Delagnes, Anne, Tribolo, Chantal, Bertran, Pascal, Brenet, Michel, Crassard, Rémy, Jaubert, Jacques, Khalidi, Lamya, Mercier, Norbert, Nomade, Sébastien, Peigné, Stéphane, Sitzia, Luca, Tournepiche, Jean-François, Al-Halibi, Mohammad, Al-Mosabi, Ahmad, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « Inland Human Settlement In Southern Arabia 55,000 Years Ago. New Evidence From The Wadi Surdud Middle Paleolithic Site Complex, Western Yemen ». Journal of Human Evolution 63(3): 452-474.
    Résumé : The recovery at Shi’bat Dihya 1 (SD1) of a dense Middle Paleolithic human occupation dated to 55 ka BP sheds new light on the role of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of the alleged expansion of modern humans out of Africa. SD1 is part of a complex of Middle Paleolithic sites cut by the Wadi Surdud and interstratified within an alluvial sedimentary basin in the foothills that connect the Yemeni highlands with the Tihama coastal plain. A number of environmental proxies indicate arid conditions throughout a sequence that extends between 63 and 42 ka BP. The lithic industry is geared toward the production of a variety of end products: blades, pointed blades, pointed flakes and Levallois-like flakes with long unmodified cutting edges, made from locally available rhyolite. The occasional exploitation of other local raw materials, that fulfill distinct complementary needs, highlights the multi-functional nature of the occupation. The slightly younger Shi’bat Dihya 2 (SD2) site is characterized by a less elaborate production of flakes, together with some elements (blades and pointed flakes) similar to those found at SD1, and may indicate a cultural continuity between the two sites. The technological behaviors of the SD1 toolmakers present similarities with those documented from a number of nearly contemporaneous assemblages from southern Arabia, the Levant, the Horn of Africa and North Africa. However, they do not directly conform to any of the techno-complexes typical of the late Middle Paleolithic or late Middle Stone Age from these regions. This period would have witnessed the development of local Middle Paleolithic traditions in the Arabian Peninsula, which suggests more complex settlement dynamics and possible population interactions than commonly inferred by the current models of modern human expansion out of Africa.
    Mots-clés : Arabian Peninsula, Lithic technology, Middle Paleolithic, OSL dating, Settlement dynamics, Wadi Surdud site complex, Yemen.

  • Demay, Laëtitia, Péan, Stéphane, et Patou-Mathis, Marylène.0 « Mammoths Used As Food And Building Resources By Neanderthals: Zooarchaeological Study Applied To Layer 4, Molodova I (Ukraine) ». Quaternary International 276–277: 212-226.
    Résumé : Considering Neanderthal subsistence, the use of mammoth resources has been particularly discussed. Apart from procurement for food, the use of mammoth bones as building material has been proposed. The hypothesis was based on the discovery made in Molodova I, Ukraine (Dniester valley). In this large multistratified open-air site, a rich Mousterian layer was excavated. Dated to the Inter-Pleniglacial (MIS 3), it has yielded 40 000 lithic remains associated with ca. 3000 mammal bones, mostly from mammoth. Several areas have been excavated: a pit filled with bones, different areas of activities (butchering, tool production), twenty-five hearths and a circular accumulation made of mammoth bones, described as a dwelling structure set up by Neanderthals. Attested dwelling structures made of mammoth bones are known in Upper Paleolithic sites, from Ukraine and Russia, attributed to the Epigravettian tradition. This paper presents a zooarchaeological study of large mammal remains from Molodova I layer 4, to understand the modalities of acquisition and utilization of mammoth resources for food and technical purposes, especially to test the hypothesis of using bones as building elements. The number of mammoths is estimated to at least fifteen individuals of all age classes and both sexes, which died during several episodes, near or on the site. The taphonomic modifications due to weathering, water percolation and plant roots indicate the location of bones in holes, such as the pit and the basement of the circular accumulation. Secondary actions of carnivores, especially of hyaenid type, are rare on bones, showing that the assemblage was not accumulated by these predators. The anatomical preservation, the age and sex features and the taphonomic data indicate several modalities of mammoth acquisition by hunting, scavenging and collecting. Based on anthropogenic marks, mammoth meat has been eaten. The presence of series of striations and ochre on mammoth bones are associated with a technical or symbolic use. Furthermore, mammoth bones have been deliberately selected (long and flat bones, tusks, connected vertebrae) and circularly arranged. This mammoth bone structure could be described as the basement of a wooden cover or as a wind-screen. The inner presence of fifteen hearths, lithic artifacts and waste of mammal butchery and cooking is characteristic of a domestic area, which was probably the centre of a residential camp recurrently settled. It appears that Neanderthals were the oldest known humans who used mammoth bones to build a dwelling structure.

  • Duval, Mathieu, Falguères, Christophe, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Grün, Rainer, Shao, Qingfeng, Aubert, Maxime, Dolo, Jean-Michel, Agustí, Jordi, Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido, Palmqvist, Paul, et Toro-Moyano, Isidro.0 « On The Limits Of Using Combined U-Series/esr Method To Date Fossil Teeth From Two Early Pleistocene Archaeological Sites Of The Orce Area (Guadix-Baza Basin, Spain) ». Quaternary Research 77(3): 482-491.
    Résumé : The combined U-series/electron spin resonance (ESR) dating method was applied to nine teeth from two Early Pleistocene archaeological sites located in the Orce area (Guadix-Baza Basin, Southern Spain): Fuente Nueva-3 (FN-3) and Barranco León (BL). The combination of biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy places both sites between the Olduvai and Jaramillo subchrons (1.78–1.07 Ma). Our results highlight the difficulty of dating such old sites and point out the limits of the combined U-series/ESR dating method based on the US model. We identified several sources of uncertainties that may lead to inaccurate age estimates. Seven samples could not be dated because the dental tissues had (230Th/234U) activity ratios higher than equilibrium, indicating that uranium had probably leached from these tissues. It was however possible to calculate numerical estimates for two of the teeth, both from FN-3. One yielded a Middle Pleistocene age that seems to be strongly underestimated; the other provided an age of 1.19 ± 0.21 Ma, in agreement with data obtained from independent methods. The latter result gives encouragement that there are samples that can be used for routine dating of old sites.
    Mots-clés : Barranco León, Combined U-series/ESR dating method, Early Pleistocene, Fossil teeth, Fuente Nueva-3, Orce.

  • Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique, Widianto, Harry, Détroit, Florent, et Sémah, François.0 « Comparative Morphological And Morphometric Description Of The Hominin Calvaria From Bukuran (Sangiran, Central Java, Indonesia) ». Journal of Human Evolution 63(5): 637-652.
    Résumé : We describe the hominin skull (called here “Bukuran”) discovered in the lower Kabuh (or “Bapang”) series near Sendangbusik, from the Bukuran area in the Sangiran dome. The fossil, heavily mineralized, consists of the parieto-occipital and the left temporal, and the frontal bones. When combined, those two cranial parts represent a rather complete and well-preserved calvaria. Its stratigraphic position was established after the discovery. A detailed description is presented of the morphological and metric features of the Bukuran calvaria, and comparisons are made with Asian Homo erectus from Indonesia and China. The estimated cranial capacity of Bukuran, the general shape of its cranial vault, its ectocranial structures, and its morphological and metrical characters are in the range of Asian Homo erectus, and show clear affinities with other Indonesian members of the species. We discuss the evolutionary status of the Bukuran calvaria and its implication for hominin history on Java.
    Mots-clés : Cranial remains, Homo erectus, Kabuh (Bapang) series, Sangiran Dome.

  • Guérin, Guillaume, Discamps, Emmanuel, Lahaye, Christelle, Mercier, Norbert, Guibert, Pierre, Turq, Alain, Dibble, Harold L., McPherron, Shannon P., Sandgathe, Dennis, Goldberg, Paul, Jain, Mayank, Thomsen, Kristina, Patou-Mathis, Marylène, Castel, Jean-Christophe, et Soulier, Marie-Cécile.0 « Multi-Method (Tl And Osl), Multi-Material (Quartz And Flint) Dating Of The Mousterian Site Of Roc De Marsal (Dordogne, France): Correlating Neanderthal Occupations With The Climatic Variability Of Mis 5–3 ». Journal of Archaeological Science 39(10): 3071-3084.
    Résumé : Roc de Marsal has yielded numerous remains of Mousterian occupations, including lithics, fauna and combustion features. It was made famous by the discovery of the skeleton of a Neanderthal child. Given the need to date the sequence, TL and OSL were applied on heated flints and quartz, and OSL on unheated quartz. Chronological results combined with palaeoenvironmental data – faunal remains and micromorphological features in the sediments from the cave, pollen proxies and faunal remains from the region – allowed us to place climate variations in southwest France on a numerical time scale. Denticulate Mousterian occupations were dated to the middle of MIS 4 (65–70 ka) and Quina layers either to the very end of MIS 4 or to MIS 3. Interestingly, a faunal pattern showing a mix of red deer, roe deer and reindeer was found to have occurred during MIS 4, which was shown to be consistent with data from other similar sites in southwest France.
    Mots-clés : Climate variability, Middle Palaeolithic, OSL, Palaeoenvironments, TL.

  • Han, Fei, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Boëda, Éric, Hou, Yamei, Huang, Wanbo, Falguères, Christophe, Rasse, Michel, Wei, Guangbiao, Garcia, Tristan, Shao, Qingfeng, et Yin, Gongming.0 « Preliminary Results Of Combined Esr/u-Series Dating Of Fossil Teeth From Longgupo Cave, China ». Quaternary Geochronology 10: 436-442.
    Résumé : Longgupo Cave site, located in Wushan County, Chongqing, China has attracted continuous attention since its discovery of hominid remains in association with late Pliocene-early Pleistocene fauna and numerous lithic artefacts. In 2003–2006, new excavation was carried out on this site, allowing the description of a detailed stratigraphy of the highly complex cave infillings and the sampling of teeth for combined ESR/U-series analyses. Here we report preliminary dating results of seven herbivorous fossil teeth from different archaeological layers of the lowest geological unit (C III). Uranium-series analyses indicate that no obvious uranium leaching has occurred and all the teeth (except one) underwent a very recent uranium uptake history. The obtained US-ESR results show that the age of six teeth are basically consistent, between ∼1.4 and 1.8 Ma. At the same time, we observed an inverse correlation of two samples with the stratigraphical sequence. This could be caused by the distinct uranium uptake history of one sample, high uranium content in the enamel for another or bad estimation of external dose rate. Due to the complexity of the stratigraphic sequence, supplementary in situ gamma dose rate measurement should be performed for all the samples during the following excavations in order to confirm this preliminary ESR/U-series chronology.
    Mots-clés : China, Early Pleistocene, ESR/U-series method, Fossil teeth, Longgupo site.

  • Iakovleva, L., Djindjian, F., Maschenko, E.N., Konik, S., et Moigne, A.-M.0 « The Late Upper Palaeolithic Site Of Gontsy (Ukraine): A Reference For The Reconstruction Of The Hunter–Gatherer System Based On A Mammoth Economy ». Quaternary International 255: 86-93.
    Résumé : The long-term excavations of the LUP settlement of Gontsy (Ukraine), with its mammoth bone huts and associated with a mammoth bone bed, has allowed reconstruction of all the pieces of the puzzle of this type of settlement and the major role of the economy of mammoth in the Mezinian peopling of the middle and upper Dnepr basin (Ukraine and Russia). The settlements generally share the same geomorphology, a promontory cut by ravines on the slope of a river valley. The dwelling area is organized around mammoth bone huts, with numerous pits around each hut, large working areas with hearths, dumping areas, a butchering area for small and medium mammals, and the existence of a mammoth bone bed, which has been largely exploited during the occupation of the settlement. The landscape analysis, using the information from the mapping, the functions and the seasonality of the settlements, characterizes a particular system based on the economy of mammoth, limited to a short period between 15 000 and 14 000 BP at the beginning of the climatic change ending the last ice age. The Mezinian system is compared to similar systems such as the Pavlovian in Moravia and the eastern Gravettian in central and eastern Europe, in which mammoth bone beds have also been found near the settlements and which show the same economy based on the mammoth.

  • Ingicco, T., Moigne, A.-M., et Gommery, D.0 « A Deciduous And Permanent Dental Wear Stage System For Assessing The Age Of Trachypithecus Sp. Specimens (Colobinae, Primates) ». Journal of Archaeological Science 39(2): 421-427.
    Résumé : Although Colobine monkeys are one of the most common prey hunted by Southeast Asian prehistoric humans, no data concerning tooth eruption and wear are available for these species. Dental wear eruption and attrition are used for attributing ages to individual fossils in order to construct mortality curves, and are also useful in reconstructing fossil life histories. Such wear sequences partly exist for Cercopithecines. Although Cercopithecines and Colobines are both bilophodont, they present significant differences in terms of diet, detailed tooth morphologies and occlusion. This paper aims to formulate a guide for the dental eruption and attrition of extant Trachypithecus specimens, the most folivorous of all the Colobines. We also propose to calibrate the eruption and wear stages that we define here with absolute ages available in the literature.
    Mots-clés : Colobines, Tooth attrition, Tooth eruption, Trachypithecus, Wear stages.

  • Jacobs, Zenobia, Roberts, Richard G., Nespoulet, Roland, El Hajraoui, Mohammed Abdeljalil, et Debénath, André.0 « Single-Grain Osl Chronologies For Middle Palaeolithic Deposits At El Mnasra And El Harhoura 2, Morocco: Implications For Late Pleistocene Human–Environment Interactions Along The Atlantic Coast Of Northwest Africa ». Journal of Human Evolution 62(3): 377-394.
    Résumé : Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements were made on individual, sand-sized grains of quartz from Middle Palaeolithic deposits at two cave sites (El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra) on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. We were able to calculate OSL ages for 32 of the 33 samples collected from the Middle Palaeolithic deposits, including the earliest and latest Aterian levels at both sites. These ages reveal periods of occupation between about 110 and 95 ka (thousands of years ago), and at ∼75 ka. A late Middle Palaeolithic occupation of El Harhoura 2 is also recorded at ∼55 ka. Our single-grain OSL chronologies largely support previous age estimates from El Mnasra and other sites along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, but are generally more precise, reproducible and stratigraphically more coherent (i.e., fewer age reversals). We compare the single-grain ages for El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra with those obtained from single- and multi-grain OSL dating of Middle Palaeolithic deposits in the nearby sites of Contrebandiers and Dar es-Soltan 1 and 2, and with records of past regional environments preserved in sediment cores collected from off the coast of northwest Africa. A conspicuous feature of the new chronologies is the close correspondence between the three identified episodes of human occupation and periods of wetter climate and expanded grassland habitat. Owing to the precision of the single-grain OSL ages, we are able to discern gaps in occupation during Marine Isotope Stages 5 and 4, which may represent drier periods with reduced vegetation cover. We propose that these climatic conditions can be correlated with events in the North Atlantic Ocean that exert a major control on abrupt, millennial-scale fluctuations between wet and dry periods in northwest and central North Africa.
    Mots-clés : Aterian, Dose distributions, MIS 5, Palaeoenvironments, Sand-sized quartz, Sediment mixing.

  • Janati Idrissi, Nouha, Falgueres, Christophe, Haddad, Mustapha, Nespoulet, Roland, Hajraoui, Mohamed Abdeljalil El, Debenath, André, Bejjit, Lahcen, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Michel, Patrick, Garcia, Tristan, Boudad, Larbi, Hammouti, Kamal El, et Oujaa, Aïcha.0 « Datation Par Esr-U/th Combinées De Dents Fossiles Des Grottes D'el Mnasra Et D'el Harhoura 2, Région De Rabat-Temara. Implications Chronologiques Sur Le Peuplement Du Maroc Atlantique Au Pléistocène Supérieur Et Son Environnement ». Quaternaire 23(1): 25-35.
    Mots-clés : Actual, Actuel, Africa, Africa del norte, Afrique, Afrique du Nord, Asentamiento, caves, Cénozoïque, Cenozoic, Cenozoico, combined ESR-U/Th dating, Cuaternario, Cuaternario sup, Datation, dating, Dent, Diente, El Harhoura 2, El Mnasra, electron paramagnetic resonance, Excavación, Excavation, excavations, Fanerozoico, Fechado, Fossil teeth, Grotte, Gruta, Holocène, Holocene, Holoceno, Maroc, Marruecos, modern, Morocco, Néolithique, Neolítico, Neolithic, North Africa, Paléolithique, Paléolithique sup, Paleolítico, Paleolithic, Phanérozoïque, Phanerozoic, Pléistocène, Pléistocène sup, Pleistocene, Quaternaire, Quaternaire sup, Quaternary, Résonance paramagnétique électronique, settlement, Tassement, teeth, Th-U, Th/U, upper Paleolithic, upper Pleistocene, upper Quaternary.

  • Julien, Marie-Anne, Bocherens, Hervé, Burke, Ariane, Drucker, Dorothée G., Patou-Mathis, Marylène, Krotova, Oleksandra, et Péan, Stéphane.0 « Were European Steppe Bison Migratory? 18O, 13C And Sr Intra-Tooth Isotopic Variations Applied To A Palaeoethological Reconstruction ». Quaternary International 271: 106-119.
    Résumé : This paper focuses on the palaeoethological study of steppe bison (Bison priscus), a Eurasiatic species that disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene. In the Southern steppe of Eastern Europe, this large bovid seems to have been a keystone species during the late Pleistocene, where it is omnipresent in archaeozoological assemblages and can constitute spectacular bone accumulations. Based on the principles of actualism, which assume that modern animal biology and their behavioural adaptations can be applied to the past, different models of bison palaeoethological reconstructions have been proposed to explain this important occurrence of bison in East European archaeological records. Considering the variability of extant bison behaviour, it appeared necessary to undertake a direct reconstruction of the behaviour of fossil bison, to assess how they were targeted. In order to reconstruct steppe bison ecology and habits stable isotope analyses were conducted of tooth enamel carbonate of 25 individuals from Amvrosievka, a Late Pleistocene (∼18,500 BP) archaeological site complex from Eastern Ukraine. Intra- and inter-individual variations in the stable oxygen, carbon and strontium isotope composition of tooth enamel were analysed to reconstruct the feeding behaviour and seasonal movements of steppe bison. This is the first large scale multi-proxy study of its kind for a Pleistocene cohort. The results show that bison δ13C values are wholly consistent with an exclusively C3 plant diet, typical of steppe/grassland environments, with a likely consumption of lichen during the cold season. δ18O, δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr values are typical of sedentary bison herds, with limited inter-seasonal movement. These results challenge the previous assumption that Pleistocene bison of the East European steppe were migratory, demonstrating instead that they occupied limited ranges, with no long distance seasonal movement, and that they occasionally incorporated low nutrient foods in their diet. These new palaeobiological results confirm the ecological and behavioural plasticity of bison and have important implications for archaeologists studying hunter-gatherers since human acquisition strategies are directly related to the social, seasonal and spatial behaviour of prey species. This research demonstrates that direct reconstructions of the eco-ethology of fossil prey species are essential, therefore, before attempting to make inferences about the hunting tactics and subsistence strategies developed by Prehistoric hunters.

  • Lahlil, Sophia, Lebon, Matthieu, Beck, Lucile, Rousselière, Hélène, Vignaud, Colette, Reiche, Ina, Menu, Michel, Paillet, Patrick, et Plassard, Frédéric.0 « The First In Situ Micro-Raman Spectroscopic Analysis Of Prehistoric Cave Art Of Rouffignac St-Cernin, France ». Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 43(11): 1637–1643.
    Résumé : The first in situ micro-Raman spectroscopic study of prehistoric drawings found in the cave of Rouffignac-Saint-Cernin (Dordogne, France) was carried out. Rouffignac cave art, assigned to the upper Magdalenian Paleolithic period (13500–12000 bp), is constituted of more than 250 drawings and engraving including 158 mammoths. There are about a hundred drawings, all made of black pigments. Until now, destructive chemical analyses performed on one sample, as well as recent micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) in situ analyses have shown that the drawings contain manganese oxides. Because no carbon has yet been found, no direct dating of the drawings could be performed. This new study of the Rouffignac cave using non-destructive in situ micro-analyses aims at confirming or not the absence of carbon-based drawings and at understanding the apparent homogeneity of the parietal representations by the identification of the crystalline phases constituting the black pigments. The adaptability of portable equipment as well as the feasibility of in situ micro-Raman analyses in a cave environment was tested. The results obtained are compared with in situ XRF, and X-ray diffraction microanalysis is performed at the same time in the cave. We demonstrate that a portable Raman instrument is very useful to analyze non-destructively drawings in the following difficult conditions: high humidity, various wall geometries, and small amounts of material studied. These results show that the black manganese oxides romanechite and pyrolusite were used as pigments by prehistorical artists. Carbon and carotenoids have been found locally. Differences between the various figures are highlighted and hypotheses about the drawings production are proposed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Mots-clés : manganese oxides, Paleolithic, portable micro-Raman, romanechite, Rouffignac.

  • Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier, Nomade, Sébastien, Poupeau, Gérard, Guillou, Hervé, Tushabramishvili, Nikolos, Moncel, Marie-Hélène, Pleurdeau, David, Agapishvili, Tamar, Voinchet, Pierre, Mgeladze, Ana, et Lordkipanidze, David.0 « Multiple Origins Of Bondi Cave And Ortvale Klde (Nw Georgia) Obsidians And Human Mobility In Transcaucasia During The Middle And Upper Palaeolithic ». Journal of Archaeological Science 39(5): 1317-1330.
    Résumé : Using PIXE four types of elemental compositions were found among obsidian artefacts from the Bondi Cave and Ortvale Klde, Middle to Upper Palaeolithic sites in NW Georgia. One of those types corresponds to obsidians from the Chikiani source, whose compositions were determined with a very good agreement by PIXE and ICP-AES/MS. The composition of Chikiani obsidians is remarkably constant despite K–Ar and 39Ar/40Ar extrusion ages from ca 2.4 and 2.8 Ma. The compositions of two other groups of obsidian artefacts are similar to source materials from eastern Anatolia and Armenia, in particular Ikisdere, Sarikamis, Gutansar, and Hatis. Obsidian is only a minority component in the lithic assemblages at the Bondi Cave and Ortvale Klde. Both Neanderthal and Modern Human populations used obsidian in particular from Chikiani. Considering that the shortest walking distance to this nearest source is at minimum of about 180 km, and to other potential sources of more than 350 km it is suggested that this material reached these two sites mostly, if not exclusively, by a series of ‘down the line’ exchanges.
    Mots-clés : Bondi Cave, Chikiani obsidians, Obsidian provenance, Ortvale Klde, Palaeolithic.

  • Lebon, Matthieu, Müller, Katharina, Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic, Paris, Céline, et Reiche, Ina. 2012. « Application Des Micro-Spectrométries Infrarouge Et Raman À L'étude Des Processus Diagénétiques Altérant Les Ossements Paléolithiques ». ArchéoSciences n° 35(1): 179-190.

  • Marquer, L., Lebreton, V., Otto, T., Valladas, H., Haesaerts, P., Messager, E., Nuzhnyi, D., et Péan, S.0 « Charcoal Scarcity In Epigravettian Settlements With Mammoth Bone Dwellings: The Taphonomic Evidence From Mezhyrich (Ukraine) ». Journal of Archaeological Science 39(1): 109-120.
    Résumé : Fuel management during the Paleolithic periods is an important issue to understand past human subsistence. Numerous Palaeolithic sites relate an abundance of burnt bones in hearths and an absence or scarcity of wood charcoals, which leads studies to focus on burnt bone remains and the use of bones in hearths. Few works take into account the micro-residues of wood charcoals which can still be present in hearth areas and excavated sediments. We studied the Epigravettian site with mammoth bone dwellings of Mezhyrich (Ukraine) previously characterized by its high content of burnt bones and an “absence” of wood charcoal during the so-called mammoth steppe. The presence or absence and proportions of both wood charcoals and burnt bones were quantified in macro-, meso- and microscale sediment size fractions by an image analysis method. Our results show that excavations during field-works at Mezhyrich give only a partial image of the original anthracological record and that most charcoal materials are lost with standard archaeological and anthracological approaches. The scarcity of charcoals in this site was possibly due to an important mass reduction accentuated by the addition of bones in hearths. By applying our protocol we recovered a significant amount of wood charcoals which provides the first 14C dates from charcoals at Mezhyrich. Numerous charcoals are identified contributing subsequent information about vegetation, environment and burning practices. They indicate, by comparison with pollen data already collected, the presence of forest patches in a mammoth steppe landscape, which might have influenced the collecting behavior of Epigravettian populations.
    Mots-clés : Burnt bones, Charcoal, Combustion residues, Taphonomy, Ukraine, Upper Palaeolithic.

  • McPherron, Shannon Patrick, Dibble, Harold Lewis, Chiotti, Laurent, Chase, Philip, Debénath, André, et Farrand, William R.0 « Processus De Formation Des Sites Et Concept Du Tayacien : L’Exemple De Fontéchevade (Charente, France) ». L'Anthropologie 116(3): 321-347.
    Résumé : Résumé Le Tayacien fut reconnu pour la première fois par le préhistorien français D. Peyrony à La Micoque en Dordogne. Peu après, les fouilles de la grotte de Fontéchevade en Charente, à 80 km au nord-est, fournirent à G. Henri-Martin un large assemblage lithique de ce type qui fut étudié en détail. C’est pour cette raison que Fontéchevade devint le site de référence du Tayacien. Les fouilles récentes effectuées par les auteurs de cet article ont montré qu’il existait différents arguments suggérant que les assemblages lithiques de la grotte de Fontéchevade ont une origine probablement plus naturelle qu’anthropique. Cet article présente ces résultats dans le contexte historique du Tayacien et de la grotte de Fontéchevade elle-même. The Tayacian was first recognized early in the 20th century by the French archaeologist Denis Peyrony at the site of La Micoque, located in the Department of the Dordogne in SW France. Not long afterwards, later excavations at another site 80 km to the northwest, in the Charente, yielded an even larger assemblage of this type, which was more fully documented by the excavator. It was for this reason that this latter site, Fontéchevade, ultimately become the reference site for the Tayacian. Based on recent excavations at this site by the present authors, however, there are multiple lines of evidence that, taken together, strongly suggest that assemblage present in this cave is largely of natural, rather than anthropogenic, origin. This paper presents these results in the context of the history of the Tayacian and the cave of Fontéchevade itself.
    Mots-clés : Fontéchevade, Processus de formation des sites, Site formation processes, Taphonomie, Taphonomy, Tayacian, Tayacien.

  • Mensan, Romain, Bourrillon, Raphaëlle, Cretin, Catherine, White, Randall, Gardère, Philippe, Chiotti, Laurent, Sisk, Matthew, Clark, Amy, Higham, Thomas, et Tartar, Élise.0 « Une Nouvelle Découverte D’Art Pariétal Aurignacien In Situ À L’Abri Castanet (Dordogne, France) : Contexte Et Datation ». PALEO. Revue d'archéologie préhistorique (23): 171-188.
    Résumé : En 2007, un fragment de voûte ornée a été découvert, sur le site de l’abri Castanet (commune de Sergeac, Dordogne) lors des opérations archéologiques ce qui n’était plus arrivé depuis 1912 (fouilles de M. Castanet pour L. Didon). La face profondément gravée et peinte de ce bloc d’effondrement, pesant plus d’une tonne, était en contact direct avec la couche archéologique aurignacienne. Une série de six datations par 14C AMS (par filtration moléculaire), réalisée sur des vestiges osseux de faune en contact avec le sommet du niveau d’occupation, donne des résultats cohérents dont la moyenne est de 32 400 BP. Parmi les tracés visibles, sur la surface du bloc, la figure la plus évidente est celle d’une vulve. Cette thématique a été mise en évidence de façon récurrente au cours des fouilles du XXe siècle sur le site de Castanet et sur celui voisin de Blanchard. La découverte de ce bloc et sa datation permettent de recadrer chronologiquement ceux retrouvés à quelques mètres au cours des fouilles anciennes et d’aborder ces manifestations du vallon de Castel-Merle sous un nouvel angle.
    Mots-clés : Abri Castanet, Aurignacien, bloc gravé, contexte, Datation.

  • Moncel, M.-H., Chiotti, L., Gaillard, C., Onoratini, G., et Pleurdeau, D.0 « Non-Utilitarian Lithic Objects From The European Paleolithic ». Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia 40(1): 24-40.
    Résumé : We present here previously unpublished non-utilitarian Paleolithic stone objects, within the contextual framework of similar objects from European sites. The occurrence of non-utilitarian lithic objects, often modified, in Middle Stone Age or Upper Paleolithic sites is now widely accepted as evidence of symbolic behavior associated with the appearance of Homo sapiens. However the occurrence of non-utilitarian and unusual objects in far earlier sites raises questions about their significance. Our purpose is not to discuss their meaning, which is unknown to us, but to approach their diversity and to trace their evolution. From the earliest beginnings of mankind, various objects have been found in the occupation sites that have no apparent functional link with any technical activity or food procurement. This type of object is more obvious from the Acheulian times onwards and then becomes common in the Late Pleistocene. The inventory and classification according to the object characteristics (raw material, color, shape, degree of transformation, etc.) and the context of the sites (chronology, stratigraphy, paleoenvironment) help in identifying specific hominin behavior. Perhaps they were intended to convey symbolic expression, quite vague in any case for the earliest periods, but at least their occurrence in the sites suggests some non-utilitarian concerns among the people who made them.
    Mots-clés : Europe, Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic, Non-utilitarian lithic objects, upper Paleolithic.

  • Moncel, M.-H., Puaud, S., Daujeard, C., Lartigot-Campin, A.-S., Millet, J.-J., Theodoropoulou, A., Cregut-Bonnoure, E., Gely, B., Vercoutere, C., Desclaux, E., Roger, T., et Bourges, F.0 « La Grotte Du Figuier (Saint-Martin-D'ardèche): Bilan Des Travaux Récents Sur Un Site Du Paléolithique Moyen Et Supérieur De La Moyenne Vallée Du Rhône (Sud-Est De La France) ». Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française 109(1): 35-67.
    Mots-clés : Archaeometry, Archaeozoology, Archéométrie, Archéozoologie, Ardèche, Ardeche, Cave, Europe, Fauna, Faune, France, Gravettian, Gravettien, Grotte, Grotte du Figuier, Human palaeontology, Human remain, Industrie lithique, Lithic industry, Middle Palaeolithic, Paléoenvironnement, Paléolithique moyen, Paléolithique supérieur, Paléontologie humaine, Paleoenvironment, Palynologie, Palynology, Reste humain, Saint-Martin-d'Ardèche, Sédimentologie, Sedimentology, Stratigraphie, Stratigraphy, Upper Palaeolithic.

  • Moncel, Marie-hélène, et Daujeard, Camille.0 « The Variability Of The Middle Palaeolithic On The Right Bank Of The Middle Rhône Valley (Southeast France): Technical Traditions Or Functional Choices? ». Quaternary International 247: 103-124.
    Résumé : The variability of technical choices in the Rhône Valley (southeast France) is discussed in relation to the age, environmental conditions, site localisation and site function. New excavations and analyses make it possible to tackle these questions by comparing a wide corpus of sites within limited chronological and geographical frameworks. The technical and typological diversity between MIS 8 and beginning of MIS 3 stem from the existence of different regional and cultural traditions which expressed without link with the seasonal management of a territory. No clear link exists with the age or the climatic context, except for the blade technology which appears at the MIS 5. The hypothesis of technical traditions over time is consistent with what is observed in other European areas.

  • Moreno, Davinia, Falguères, Christophe, Pérez-González, Alfredo, Duval, Mathieu, Voinchet, Pierre, Benito-Calvo, Alfonso, Ortega, Ana Isabel, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Sala, Robert, Carbonell, Eudald, Bermúdez de Castro, Jose María, et Arsuaga, Juan Luis.0 « Esr Chronology Of Alluvial Deposits In The Arlanzón Valley (Atapuerca, Spain): Contemporaneity With Atapuerca Gran Dolina Site ». Quaternary Geochronology 10: 418-423.
    Résumé : The Sierra de Atapuerca (Northern Spain) is characterized by a well-developed karst system where several major archaeological sites have been discovered, attesting an almost continuous hominin occupation of the area during the whole Pleistocene period. Previous geomorphological studies showed a connection between genesis of the karst system and the evolution of the nearby Arlanzón river Valley. However, numerical dating results were missing to refine the chronostratigraphical framework of the Arlanzón valley's fluvial incision. To address this, we applied the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating method to sedimentary optically bleached quartz grains from several fluvial terraces. Nine samples were collected from five of the 14 identified terraces. The ESR age results are stratigraphically coherent and in general agreement with both previous geomorphological observations and available palaeomagnetic data. Consequently, an ESR chronology of the geological evolution of the Arlanzón valley is proposed, which can be then correlated to the sedimentary sequence of the palaeoanthropological site of Atapuerca Gran Dolina. Our results provide important information about the chronology of hominid occupation in this area during Early and Middle Pleistocene.
    Mots-clés : Arlanzón, Bleached quartz, ESR dating, Fluvial sediments, Gran Dolina, Pleistocene.

  • Onoratini, Gérard, Arellano, Almudena, Del Lucchese, Angiolo, Moullé, Pierre Elie, et Serre, Frédéric.0 « The Barma Grande Cave (Grimaldi, Vintimiglia, Italy): From Neandertal, Hunter Of “Elephas Antiquus”, To Sapiens With Ornaments Of Mammoth Ivory ». Quaternary International 255: 141-157.
    Résumé : In 1884 the Barma Grande cave (Grimaldi, Ventimiglia, Italy) entered history following the research of L. Jullien and S. Bonfils who discovered, buried at a depth of 8.4 m, a grave dating from the Upper Paleolithic: “le nouvel homme de Menton”. Subsequently, there were the excavations by the quarry-worker Abbo and his sons, which revealed new burials, including a triple burial which included ornaments crafted from mammoth ivory (discovered in 1892) and remnants of a late “Elephas antiquus” in a Mousterian level. Starting in 1928, the research of A. Mochi, G.A. Blanc and L. Cardini highlighted the site’s stratigraphy: at the base, a Tyrrhenian marine level (MIS 5.5); above, a long continental sequence from the middle Paleolithic including several Mousterian hearths with a fauna composed of large mammals, including the remains of “E. antiquus”. The study of the material of the Bonfils excavations, preserved at the Musée de Préhistoire Régionale of Menton, and of the Abbo excavations preserved at the Balzi Rossi Museum allowed attribution of all of the graves to the early and middle Gravettian level with its “fléchettes“. Moreover, in the highest sequence of the site (MIS 2), mammoth bone remains have been found, as well as ivory funerary ornaments in the triple burial and in the burial known as of "l’homme aux jambes croisées". Although very rare, there are sporadic mammoth remains in some sites in Liguria, but it is primarily in western Gravettian hunter sites in the low valley of the Rhône that this animal is well represented. The sites were on the road for zoned flint (Stampien), a material that was both exotic and prestigious, constituting a funerary offering given by the Gravettians of Liguria. The “E. antiquus” of the lower levels (MIS 3 to 5), present in the Mousterian levels, not only indicates the persistence of this animal until MIS 3 (when it took refuge in Provence and Liguria), but provided material for tools made from elephant ivory by the last Neandertal hunters.

  • Pigeaud, Romain, Berrouet, Florian, Bougard, Estelle, Paitier, Hervé, Pommier, Vincent, et Bonic, Pascal.0 « La Grotte Du Sorcier À Saint-Cirq-Du-Bugue (Dordogne, France) : Nouvelles Lectures. Bilan Des Campagnes 2010 Et 2011 ». PALEO. Revue d'archéologie préhistorique (23): 223-248.
    Résumé : Les progrès réalisés ces dernières années dans les moyens mis à disposition pour étudier l’art pariétal préhistorique, ainsi que l’amer constat d’actes de vandalisme opérés sur certaines gravures de la grotte du Sorcier à Saint-Cirq-du-Bugue (Dordogne), nous ont conduits à reprendre l’étude de ce site majeur de l’art aquitain des populations de chasseurs-collecteurs. Cette nouvelle campagne de relevés, ainsi que l’attachement à comprendre l’exécution des gravures en lien avec les formes de relief souterrain, nous permettent de mieux appréhender l’environnement physique de la grotte au moment de la réalisation des œuvres, tout en nous faisant une idée plus précise des gestes et des techniques employés. Par ailleurs, nous avons pu réaliser lors de la première campagne, menée à l’automne 2010, la couverture topographique complète de la cavité associée à la cotation précise de l’ensemble des représentations, en vue de la réalisation future d’un modèle numérique de terrain.Sur la plupart des gravures réexaminées jusqu’alors, il nous a été possible de préciser certains tracés anciens, d’identifier la position des ajouts modernes et de constater les effets des altéragènes, associés à un support rocheux par endroits particulièrement vulnérable. La figure maîtresse de la grotte, cette représentation humaine ithyphallique, a fait l’objet d’une nouvelle lecture (notamment de la tête), qui a mis en évidence la gravure d’un équidé dont l’une des jambes arrière se superpose pour partie avec le tracé du sexe du « Sorcier ». Une nouvelle gravure figurant un équidé, jusque-là passée inaperçue, a également été découverte. Enfin, au fur et à mesure de nos investigations, il nous est apparu essentiel d’étudier l’ensemble des gravures comme appartenant à une composition se développant autour d’une large fissure présente à la voûte – signe de l’importance des formes naturelles des parois dans l’articulation des représentations –, ainsi que de repenser la constitution de son décor comme la superposition de tracés de différentes époques.
    Mots-clés : anthropomorphe, Art pariétal, gravures, grotte du Sorcier.

  • Pleurdeau, David, Imalwa, Emma, Détroit, Florent, Lesur, Joséphine, Veldman, Anzel, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, et Marais, Eugène.0 « “Of Sheep And Men”: Earliest Direct Evidence Of Caprine Domestication In Southern Africa At Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia) ». PLoS ONE 7(7): e40340.
    Résumé : The origins of herding practices in southern Africa remain controversial. The first appearance of domesticated caprines in the subcontinent is thought to be c. 2000 years BP; however, the origin of this cultural development is still widely debated. Recent genetic analyses support the long-standing hypothesis of herder migration from the north, while other researchers have argued for a cultural diffusion hypothesis where the spread of herding practices took place without necessarily implicating simultaneous and large population movements. Here we document the Later Stone Age (LSA) site of Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia), which contains confirmed caprine remains, from which we infer that domesticates were present in the southern African region as early as the end of the first millennium BC. These remains predate the first evidence of domesticates previously recorded for the subcontinent. This discovery sheds new light on the emergence of herding practices in southern Africa, and also on the possible southward routes used by caprines along the western Atlantic coast.

  • Puymerail, Laurent, Ruff, Christopher B, Bondioli, Luca, Widianto, Harry, Trinkaus, Erik, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « Structural Analysis Of The Kresna 11 Homo Erectus Femoral Shaft (Sangiran, Java) ». Journal of human evolution 63(5): 741-749.
    Résumé : The biomechanical characterization of lower limb long bones in the chrono-ecogeographically diverse species Homo erectus is a fundamental step for assessing evolutionary changes in locomotor mode and body shape that occurred within the genus Homo. However, the samples available for the Early and earlier Middle Pleistocene are small and widely scattered in time and space, thus limiting our understanding of the nature and polarity of morphological trends. Compared to the African fossil record, loading histories based on detailed biomechanical assessment of diaphyseal strength in Indonesian H. erectus lower limb long bones have not been assessed. By using a microtomographic record (μCT), we performed a quantitative analysis of the biomechanical properties and structural organization of Kresna 11, a late Early Pleistocene adult H. erectus femoral shaft from the Sangiran Dome, Central Java. Relative to the modern human condition, Kresna 11 shows the predominant mediolateral cortical thickening (hypertrophy) and the distal displacement of the minimum diaphyseal breadth characteristic of early Homo femora, associated nonetheless with relatively modest cortical thickness within the mid-proximal portion. Synthetic functional imaging of the shaft through the planar representation of its inner structure has revealed distal thickening of the medial cortex, a feature previously unreported in H. erectus. The increase in relative mediolateral bending strength observed in Kresna 11 supports the hypothesis that, rather than simply reflecting differences in patterns of locomotor loading, biomechanical properties of the femoral shaft in archaic Homo are strongly influenced by body shape, i.e., variations in pelvic breadth and femoral neck length.
    Mots-clés : Animals, Biomechanical Phenomena, Femur, Fossils, Hominidae, Humans, Indonesia, Tomography, X-Ray Computed.

  • Puymerail, Laurent, Volpato, Virginie, Debénath, André, Mazurier, Arnaud, Tournepiche, Jean-François, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « A Neanderthal Partial Femoral Diaphysis From The “Grotte De La Tour”, La Chaise-De-Vouthon (Charente, France): Outer Morphology And Endostructural Organization ». Comptes Rendus Palevol 11(8): 581-593.
    Résumé : We describe a human partial femoral shaft discovered during speleological exploration of the “grotte de la Tour”, near the prehistoric site of La Chaise-de-Vouthon (Charente, France). The context of discovery is compatible with a hyena den deposit; the associated mammal assemblage suggests a preliminary chronological attribution to MIS 3. Combined information from its outer morphology, cross-sectional geometric properties, and from the high-resolution 3D imaging and quantitative analysis of its inner structural organization shows that this specimen (CDV-Tour 1) is from an adult Neanderthal individual, more likely a male.
    Mots-clés : Diaphyse fémorale, Femoral shaft, France, Grotte de la Tour, La Chaise-de-Vouthon, Néandertal, Neanderthal.

  • Sémah, Anne-Marie, et Sémah, François.0 « The Rain Forest In Java Through The Quaternary And Its Relationships With Humans (Adaptation, Exploitation And Impact On The Forest) ». Quaternary International 249: 120-128.
    Résumé : Relations between humans and the rain forest in Java Island began during the Lower Pleistocene, but clear evidence for anthropic impact and clearance of the forest does not occur until late in the Holocene, after the rise of the ancient kingdoms on Java at the end of 1st millennium A.D. The history of landscape change in Java over the last 2.5 million years appears highly complex and linked to the repetitive expansion and fragmentation of the rain forest over this time. These processes are now much better understood, thanks to the range of palaeoenvironmental studies undertaken at various altitudes and in locations that show the dynamics of rain forest in response to variations in climatic and regional environmental change. The extent of rain forest throughout the Holocene appears to have been quite sensitive to small perturbations, making it somewhat difficult to discriminate (especially for relatively ancient Holocene forest recessions) between a climatic cause and one of anthropic origin. Clear evidence of intensive human impact on rain forest is observed late, c. 1500 years ago, a pattern that is repeated in other parts of Island Southeast Asia. This paper will focus on the history of the landscape changes in Java during the Quaternary, with special reference to the dynamics of rain forest structure and composition, largely drawn from available pollen analyses. Subsequently, the paleoenvironmental, palaeoanthropological, and archaeological records are considered to investigate the adaptive relationships between human groups and the forest through time.

  • Schmidt, Patrick, Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic, Slodczyk, Aneta, et Fröhlich, François.0 « A Hitherto Unrecognised Band In The Raman Spectra Of Silica Rocks: Influence Of Hydroxylated Si–O Bonds (Silanole) On The Raman Moganite Band In Chalcedony And Flint (Sio2) ». Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 39(6): 455-464.
    Résumé : Chalcedony is a spatial arrangement of hydroxylated nanometre-sized α-quartz (SiO2) crystallites that are often found in association with the silica mineral moganite (SiO2). A supplementary Raman band at 501 cm−1 in the chalcedony spectrum, attributed to moganite, has been used for the evaluation of the quartz/moganite ratio in silica rocks. Its frequency lies at 503 cm−1 in sedimentary chalcedony, representing a 2 cm−1 difference with its position in pure moganite. We present a study of the 503 cm−1 band’s behaviour upon heat treatment, showing its gradual disappearance upon heating to temperatures above 300 °C. Infrared spectroscopic measurements of the silanole (SiOH) content in the samples as a function of annealing temperature show a good correlation between the disappearance of the 503 cm−1 Raman band and the decrease of structural hydroxyl. Thermogravimetric analyses reveal a significant weight loss that can be correlated with the decreasing of this Raman band. X-ray powder diffraction data suggest the moganite content in the samples to remain stable. We propose therefore the existence of a hitherto unknown Raman band at 503 cm−1 in chalcedony, assigned to ‘free’ Si–O vibrations of non-bridging Si–OH that oscillate with a higher natural frequency than bridging Si–O–Si (at 464 cm−1). A similar phenomenon was recently observed in the infrared spectra of chalcedony. The position of this Si–OH-related band is nearly the same as the Raman moganite band and the two bands may interfere. The actually observed Raman band in silica rocks might therefore be a convolution of a silanole and a moganite vibration. These findings have broad implications for future Raman spectroscopic studies of moganite, for the assessment of the quartz/moganite ratio, using this band, must take into account the contribution from silanole that are present in chalcedony and moganite.
    Mots-clés : Chalcedony, Crystallography, Flint, Geochemistry, Heat treatment, Mineral Resources, Mineralogy, Moganite, Quartz, Raman band assignment, Silanole (SiOH), Silica rocks.

  • Schmidt, Patrick, Masse, Sylvie, Laurent, Guillaume, Slodczyk, Aneta, Le Bourhis, Eric, Perrenoud, Christian, Livage, Jacques, et Fröhlich, François.0 « Crystallographic And Structural Transformations Of Sedimentary Chalcedony In Flint Upon Heat Treatment ». Journal of Archaeological Science 39(1): 135-144.
    Résumé : The early occurrence of intentional heat treatment of silica rocks has recently become a key element in the discussion about the cultural modernity of prehistoric populations. Lithic vestiges are the only sources that remain of this process and the understanding of the material’s properties and transformations are essential for reconstructing the conditions and parameters applied during heat treatment. Several models of the structural transformations upon heating have been proposed in the current literature. These models are often contradictory and do not account for the most recent structural and mineralogical data on chalcedony. In order to propose a new model, we elaborated an experimental procedure and applied different techniques involving infrared spectroscopy, solid state NMR, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The results show that the major transformation to happen is the loss of silanole (SiOH) and the creation of new Si–O–Si bonds according to the reaction: Si‑OH HO–Si → Si–O–Si + H2O. This reaction starts between 200 °C and 300 °C and causes an increase in the hardness of the rocks. The maximal annealing temperature and the ramp rate are the functions of the ability of the structure to evacuate newly created H2O and depend on the size of the specimen and the volume of its porosity. These results also show that the annealing duration at maximum temperature can be relatively short (&lt;50 min) for a sufficiently large amount of transformation to be accomplished.
    Mots-clés : Annealing, Flint, Heat treatment, Hydroxyl, Length-fast chalcedony, Porosity, Silanole.

  • Schwartz, J, Houghton, F, Bondioli, L, et Macchiarelli, R. 2012. « Bones, Teeth, And Estimating Age Of Perinates: Carthaginian Infant Sacrifice Revisited ». Antiquity 86: 738-745.

  • Shao, Qingfeng, Bahain, Jean-Jacques, Falguères, Christophe, Dolo, Jean-Michel, et Garcia, Tristan.0 « A New U-Uptake Model For Combined Esr/u-Series Dating Of Tooth Enamel ». Quaternary Geochronology 10: 406-411.
    Résumé : Combined ESR/U-series dating of tooth enamel using US model implies the calculation of a specific parameter p for each dental tissue to reconstruct its U-uptake history. The US model simulates this history as a continuous incorporation process without leaching, where the 238U–234U–230Th system evolves towards secular equilibrium state. Consequently, the application of this model is restricted to the samples displaying 230Th/234U activity ratio below or close to equilibrium with maximum value of ∼1.05 for each tissue. In order to overcome this limitation, here, a new model named Accelerating Uptake (AU) model is proposed. This model describes U-uptake into dental tissue as an accelerating process by the introduction of two parameters, the initial uptake rate and the acceleration of this uptake rate. The AU model is then able to reconstruct a process combining incorporation followed by leaching, as well as continuous uptake one. With this model, the evolution of 230Th/234U activity ratio with time can reach values higher than unity, even beyond equilibrium. The AU model is useful in cases for which age estimates cannot be calculated by routine use of US model. The application of the AU model to the palaeoanthropological site of Mauer in Germany shows its potential for extending the applicability of the combined ESR/U-series dating of tooth enamel.
    Mots-clés : ESR/U-series dating, Tooth enamel, U-uptake model.

  • Sitzia, Luca, Bertran, Pascal, Boulogne, Stéphane, Brenet, Michel, Crassard, Rémy, Delagnes, Anne, Frouin, Marine, Hatté, Christine, Jaubert, Jacques, Khalidi, Lamya, Messager, Erwan, Mercier, Norbert, Meunier, Alain, Peigné, Stéphane, Queffelec, Alain, Tribolo, Chantal, et Macchiarelli, Roberto.0 « The Paleoenvironment And Lithic Taphonomy Of Shi’Bat Dihya 1, A Middle Paleolithic Site In Wadi Surdud, Yemen ». Geoarchaeology 27(6): 471–491.
    Résumé : The Shi'bat Dihya 1 site in western Yemen, dated by optically stimulated luminescence to 55 ka, provides insight into the Middle Paleolithic peopling of the Arabian Peninsula. The archaeological layer is interstratified within thick, sandy silt floodplain deposits filling a piedmont basin. Luminescence dates, lack of soil development, and gypsum precipitation indicate a high accretion rate of the floodplain during Marine Isotope Stage 3, in connection with a (semi)-arid environment. Rapid overbank sedimentation was likely a result of the remobilization of loess material deposited on the Yemeni Great Escarpment at the periphery of the adjacent Tihama coastal sand desert or of other sources. Fabric and size analyses of the lithic artifacts, together with spatial projections, indicate site modifications by floods. Primary modifications include (1) selective accumulation of medium-sized lithic pieces as a result of hydraulic sorting, (2) bimodal orientation of artifacts, and (3) ripple-like arrangement of lithics and bone/tooth fragments. The overrepresentation of teeth may also be a consequence of sorting. Although floods have distorted the original site patterning, long-distance transport of artifacts by water can be excluded, as indicated by relatively high refitting rate, close proximity of artifacts derived from the same block of raw material, and lack of abrasion of the pieces. Therefore, the site is considered “geologically” in situ because its remobilization by water occurred shortly after human abandonment. This study also stresses that the effective preservation of a site cannot be assessed without careful taphonomic study, even in a potentially favorable depositional context such as silty alluvium.